Fisk, JE and Murphy, PN and Montgomery, C and Hadjiefthyvoulou, F (2011) Modelling the adverse effects associated with ecstasy use. ADDICTION, 106 (4). pp. 798-805. ISSN 0965-2140
Fisk et al adverse effects 210610 Addiction v2_2.pdf - Accepted Version
Aims. Ecstasy, the street name for 3,4-meththylenedioxymethamphetamine, has been associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms and impaired psychological health in both problem and recreational users. The purpose of the present paper is to determine how these impairments are related to the history of polydrug use, and the conditions under which individuals ingest ecstasy.
Design. Associations between the variables of interest were investigated utilising negative binomial regression.
Setting. Liverpool and Preston in the North West of England.
Participants. A convenience sample of 159 recreational ecstasy/polydrug users, (80 males, 79 females). The sample was composed primarily of undergraduates.
Main Outcome Measures. The dependent variable was the number of reported ecstasy-related adverse effects. Independent variables included quantitative aspects of ecstasy and other drug use, and the various beliefs and behaviours associated with ecstasy use.
Results. The number of adverse effects was positively associated with lifetime exposure to ecstasy and negatively associated with period of abstinence from the drug. Adverse effects were more common among those who consumed ecstasy and alcohol concurrently, but were unrelated to other aspects of polydrug use. They were unaffected by whether the user took precautions when using the drug, and only weakly related to prior beliefs concerning the effects of ecstasy.
Conclusions. Greater lifetime exposure to ecstasy and consuming the drug concurrently with alcohol, increase the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects including paranoia, poor general health, irritability, confusion, and moodiness. Adverse effects decrease with the period of abstinence from the drug.
|Additional Information:||This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Modelling the adverse effects associated with ecstasy use, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03272. . This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving."|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||11 Medical And Health Sciences, 17 Psychology And Cognitive Sciences|
|Subjects:||B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology
|Divisions:||Natural Sciences and Psychology|
|Date Deposited:||15 May 2015 10:45|
|Last Modified:||08 Sep 2015 13:52|
|DOI or Identification number:||10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03272.x|
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