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Footprints of positive selection associated with a mutation (N1575Y) in the voltage-gated sodium channel of Anopheles gambiae

Jones, CM and Liyanapathirana, M and Agossa, FR and Weetman, D and Ranson, H and Donnelly, MJ and Wilding, CS (2012) Footprints of positive selection associated with a mutation (N1575Y) in the voltage-gated sodium channel of Anopheles gambiae. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 109 (17). pp. 6614-6619. ISSN 0027-8424

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Abstract

Insecticide resistance is an ideal model to study the emergence and spread of adaptative variants. In the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, this is complemented by a strong public health rationale. In this insect, resistance to pyrethroid and DDT insecticides is strongly associated with the mutations L1014F and L1014S within the para voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC). Across much of West Africa, 1014F frequency approaches fixation. Here, we document the emergence of a mutation, N1575Y, within the linker between domains III-IV of the VGSC. In data extending over 40 kbp of the VGSC 1575Y occurs on only a single long-range haplotype, also bearing 1014F. The 1014F-1575Y haplotype was found in both M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae in West/Central African sample sites separated by up to 2,000 km. In Burkina Faso M form, 1575Y allele frequency rose significantly from 0.053 to 0.172 between 2008 and 2010. Extended haplotype homozygosity analysis of the wild-type 1575N allele showed rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD), in sharp contrast to the extended LD exhibited by 1575Y. A haplotype with long-range LD and high/increasing frequency is a classical sign of strong positive selection acting on a recent mutant. 1575Y occurs ubiquitously on a 1014F haplotypic background, suggesting that the N1575Y mutation compensates for deleterious fitness effects of 1014F and/or confers additional resistance to insecticides. Haplotypic tests of association suggest the latter: The 1014F-1575Y haplotype confers a significant additive benefit above 1014F-1575N for survival to DDT (M form P = 0.03) and permethrin (S form P = 0.003).

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: MD Multidisciplinary
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Q Science > QL Zoology
Divisions: Natural Sciences and Psychology
Publisher: NATL ACAD SCIENCES
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 18 Jan 2016 10:51
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2016 10:51
DOI or Identification number: 10.1073/pnas.1201475109
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/2641

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