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The emergence of insecticide resistance in central Mozambique and potential threat to the successful indoor residual spraying malaria control programme

Abilio, AP and Kleinschmidt, I and Rehman, AM and Cuamba, N and Ramdeen, V and Mthembu, DS and Coetzer, S and Maharaj, R and Wilding, CS and Steven, A and Coleman, M and Hemingway, J and Coleman, M (2011) The emergence of insecticide resistance in central Mozambique and potential threat to the successful indoor residual spraying malaria control programme. MALARIA JOURNAL, 10 (110). pp. 1-9. ISSN 1475-2875

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Abstract

Background: Malaria vector control by indoor residual spraying was reinitiated in 2006 with DDT in Zambézia province, Mozambique. In 2007, these efforts were strengthened by the President’s Malaria Initiative. This manuscript reports on the monitoring and evaluation of this programme as carried out by the Malaria Decision Support Project.
Methods: Mosquitoes were captured daily through a series of 114 window exit traps located at 19 sentinel sites, identified to species and analysed for sporozoites. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected resting indoors and tested for insecticide resistance following the standard WHO protocol. Annual cross sectional household parasite surveys were carried out to monitor the impact of the control programme on prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in children aged 1 to 15 years.
Results: A total of 3,769 and 2,853 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus, respectively, were captured from window exit traps throughout the period. In 2010 resistance to the pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin and the carbamate, bendiocarb was detected in An. funestus. In 2006, the sporozoite rate in An. gambiae s.s. was 4% and this reduced to 1% over 4 rounds of spraying. The sporozoite rate for An. funestus was also reduced from 2% to 0 by 2008. Of the 437 Anopheles arabiensis identified, none were infectious. Overall prevalence of P. falciparum in the sentinel sites fell from 60% to 32% between October 2006 and October 2008.
Conclusion: Both An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus were controlled effectively with the DDT-based IRS programme in Zambézia, reducing disease transmission and burden. However, the discovery of pyrethroid resistance in the province and Mozambique’s policy change away from DDT to pyrethroids for IRS threatens the gains made here.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1108 Medical Microbiology
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Divisions: Natural Sciences and Psychology
Publisher: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 18 Jan 2016 11:28
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2016 11:28
DOI or Identification number: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-110
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/2644

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