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The effect of different training modes on skeletal muscle microvascular density and endothelial enzymes controlling NO availability

Cocks, MS and Wagenmakers, AJM (2015) The effect of different training modes on skeletal muscle microvascular density and endothelial enzymes controlling NO availability. The Journal of Physiology. ISSN 1469-7793

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Abstract

It is becoming increasingly apparent that a high vasodilator response of the skeletal muscle microvasculature to insulin and exercise is of critical importance for adequate muscle perfusion and long-term microvascular and muscle metabolic health. Previous research has shown that a sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and ageing lead to impairments in the vasodilator response, while a physically active lifestyle keeps both microvascular density and vasodilator response high. To investigate the molecular mechanisms behind these impairments and the benefits of exercise training interventions, our laboratory has recently developed quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy methods to measure protein content of eNOS and NAD(P)Hoxidase specifically in the endothelial layer of capillaries and arterioles of human skeletal muscle. As eNOS produces NO and NAD(P)Hoxidase superoxide anions (quenching NO) we propose that the eNOS/NAD(P)Hoxidase protein ratio is a marker of vasodilator capacity. The novel methods show that endurance training (ET) and high intensity interval training (HIT) generally regarded as a time efficient alternative to ET, increase eNOS protein content and the eNOS/NADP(H) oxidase protein ratio in previously sedentary lean and obese young men. Resistance exercise training had smaller but qualitatively similar effects. Western blot data of other laboratories suggest that endurance exercise training leads to similar changes in sedentary elderly men. Future research will be required to investigate the relative importance of other sources and tissues in the balance between NO and O2- production seen by the vascular smooth muscle layer of terminal arterioles.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the accepted version of the following article "The effect of different training modes on skeletal muscle microvascular density and endothelial enzymes controlling NO availability" which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP270329
Uncontrolled Keywords: 06 Biological Sciences, 11 Medical And Health Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Wiley: 12 months
Date Deposited: 18 Jan 2016 15:03
Last Modified: 16 Apr 2016 23:50
DOI or Identification number: 10.1113/JP270329
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/2670

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