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Forensic analysis of P2P derived amphetamine synthesis impurities: identification and characterization of indene by-products.

Power, JD and Kavanagh, P and McLaughlin, G and Dowling, G and Barry, M and O'Brien, J and Talbot, B and Twamley, B and Brandt, SD (2016) Forensic analysis of P2P derived amphetamine synthesis impurities: identification and characterization of indene by-products. Drug Testing and Analysis. ISSN 1942-7611

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Abstract

1-Phenyl-2-propanone (P2P) is an internationally monitored precursor that has become increasingly difficult for illicit amphetamine producers to source, which means that alternative routes to its preparation have become increasingly important. One such approach includes the hydrolysis of alpha-phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN) with sulfuric acid. Previously, we reported the identification of 4,6-dimethyl-3,5-diphenylpryid-2-one following implementation of hydrolysis conditions and it was proposed that this compound might serve as one route specific by-product in the APAAN to P2P conversion. This study continued to explore the presence of impurities formed during this conversion and expanded also into a second route of P2P synthesis starting from alpha-methylstyrene (AMS). All P2P products underwent the Leuckart procedure to probe the presence of P2P-related impurities that might have carried through to the final product. Two by-products associated with the APAAN hydrolysis route to P2P were identified as 2,3-diacetyl-2,3-diphenylsuccinonitrile (1) and 2-methyl-1-phenyl-1,3-dicarbonitrile-1H-indene (2), respectively. Two by-products associated with the AMS route to P2P and subsequent Leuckart reaction were 1,1,3-trimethyl-3-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indene (3) and 1-phenyl-N-(phenylethyl)propan-2-amine (4), respectively. The two indenes (2 and 3) identified in synthesized amphetamine originating from P2P suggested that it might be possible to differentiate between the two synthetic routes regarding the use of APAAN and AMS. Furthermore, the association of these compounds with amphetamine production appears to have been reported for the first time. The presence of compounds 1 - 4 in seized amphetamine samples and waste products could facilitate the suggestion whether APAAN or AMS were employed in the synthesis route to the P2P. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the accepted version of the following article: "Forensic analysis of P2P derived amphetamine synthesis impurities: identification and characterization of indene by-products", which has been published in final form at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.1944
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0301 Analytical Chemistry, 1115 Pharmacology And Pharmaceutical Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Wiley
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 10 Mar 2016 11:52
Last Modified: 06 Sep 2017 13:24
DOI or Identification number: 10.1002/dta.1944
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/3148

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