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Personality structure and social style in macaques.

Adams, MJ and Majolo, B and Ostner, J and Schülke, O and De Marco, A and Thierry, B and Engelhardt, A and Widdig, A and Gerald, MS and Weiss, A (2015) Personality structure and social style in macaques. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109 (2). pp. 338-353. ISSN 1939-1315

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Abstract

Why regularities in personality can be described with particular dimensions is a basic question in differential psychology. Nonhuman primates can also be characterized in terms of personality structure. Comparative approaches can help reveal phylogenetic constraints and social and ecological patterns associated with the presence or absence of specific personality dimensions. We sought to determine how different personality structures are related to interspecific variation in social style. Specifically, we examined this question in 6 different species of macaques, because macaque social style is well characterized and can be categorized on a spectrum of despotic (Grade 1) versus tolerant (Grade 4) social styles. We derived personality structures from adjectival ratings of Japanese (Macaca fuscata; Grade 1), Assamese (M. assamensis; Grade 2), Barbary (M. sylvanus; Grade 3), Tonkean (M. tonkeana; Grade 4), and crested (M. nigra; Grade 4) macaques and compared these species with rhesus macaques (M. mulatta; Grade 1) whose personality was previously characterized. Using a nonparametric method, fuzzy set analysis, to identify commonalities in personality dimensions across species, we found that all but 1 species exhibited consistently defined Friendliness and Openness dimensions, but that similarities in personality dimensions capturing aggression and social competence reflect similarities in social styles. These findings suggest that social and phylogenetic relationships contribute to the origin, maintenance, and diversification of personality.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1701 Psychology, 1702 Cognitive Science, 1505 Marketing
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Q Science > QL Zoology
Divisions: Natural Sciences and Psychology
Publisher: American Psychological Association
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 18 Apr 2016 09:20
Last Modified: 07 Sep 2017 13:09
DOI or Identification number: 10.1037/pspp0000041
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/3194

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