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Muscle structural assembly and functional consequences.

Narici, M and Franchi, M and Maganaris, CN (2016) Muscle structural assembly and functional consequences. Journal of Experimental Biology, 219 (Pt 2). pp. 276-284. ISSN 1477-9145

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Abstract

The relationship between muscle structure and function has been a matter of investigation since the Renaissance period. Extensive use of anatomical dissections and the introduction of the scientific method enabled early scholars to lay the foundations of muscle physiology and biomechanics. Progression of knowledge in these disciplines led to the current understanding that muscle architecture, together with muscle fibre contractile properties, has a major influence on muscle mechanical properties. Recently, advances in laser diffraction, optical microendoscopy and ultrasonography have enabled in vivo investigations into the behaviour of human muscle fascicles and sarcomeres with varying joint angle and muscle contraction intensity. With these technologies it has become possible to identify the length region over which fascicles and sarcomeres develop maximum isometric force in vivo as well as the operating ranges of fascicles and sarcomeres during real-life activities such as walking. Also, greater insights into the remodelling of muscle architecture in response to overloading and unloading, and in ageing, have been obtained by the use of ultrasonography; these have led to the identification of clinical biomarkers of disuse atrophy and sarcopenia. Recent evidence also shows that the pattern of muscle hypertrophy in response to chronic loading is contraction-mode dependent (eccentric versus concentric), as similar gains in muscle mass, but through differing addition of sarcomeres in series and in parallel (as indirectly inferred from changes in fascicle length and pennation angle), have been found. These innovative observations prompted a new set of investigations into the molecular mechanisms regulating this contraction-specific muscle growth.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 06 Biological Sciences, 11 Medical And Health Sciences
Subjects: Q Science > QP Physiology
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Company of Biologists
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Date Deposited: 19 Apr 2016 14:36
Last Modified: 08 Sep 2017 19:39
DOI or Identification number: 10.1242/jeb.128017
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/3455

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