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Fate of drugs and their metabolites in the environment

Birkett, JW and Olajide, MA and Coffey, M (2014) Fate of drugs and their metabolites in the environment. Elixir Applied Chemistry, 69. pp. 22974-22999. ISSN 2229-712X

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Abstract

The individual use of these pharmacologically active substances which generate great but underappreciated levels of other toxicologically potent and associated bioactive metabolites through purposeful and inadvertent discharge to the environment via excreta and by illegal disposal has become a global issue. This work reviews aspects of drugs occurrence, metabolism, transport routes, stability, analysis and environmental distribution of these emerging contaminants and highlights current developments in investigating and monitoring their fate and potential effects in aquatic environments. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) and high performance liquid chromatography are the preferred methods for trace drugs analysis in wastewaters as their measurements depend largely on successful application of a fast and reliable method for qualitative and quantitative determination. The application of this method to the actual influents, effluents, sludge and environmental sediments from sewage treatment works (STWs) allows the assessment of drugs content and the extent at which STW helps in the transport of these pollutants (via different media) into the environment. The capability is also outlined for furthering our understanding of fate and behaviour of drugs with particular reference to illicit drugs, abused pharmaceuticals and environmental processes in our quest to understand the overall issues of drugs and make available exposure data for the aquatic realm.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Elixir Publishers
Date Deposited: 23 Jan 2017 10:11
Last Modified: 09 Sep 2017 23:37
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/5344

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