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TYPE II SUPERNOVA ENERGETICS AND COMPARISON OF LIGHT CURVES TO SHOCK-COOLING MODELS

Rubin, A and Gal-Yam, A and De Cia, A and Horesh, A and Khazov, D and Ofek, EO and Kulkarni, SR and Arcavi, I and Manulis, I and Yaron, O and Vreeswijk, P and Kasliwal, MM and Ben-Ami, S and Perley, DA and Cao, Y and Cenko, SB and Rebbapragada, UD and Wozniak, PR and Filippenko, AV and Clubb, KI and Nugent, PE and Pan, Y-C and Badenes, C and Howell, DA and Valenti, S and Sand, D and Sollerman, J and Johansson, J and Leonard, DC and Horst, JC and Armen, SF and Fedrow, JM and Quimby, RM and Mazzali, P and Pian, E and Sternberg, A and Matheson, T and Sullivan, M and Maguire, K and Lazarevic, S (2016) TYPE II SUPERNOVA ENERGETICS AND COMPARISON OF LIGHT CURVES TO SHOCK-COOLING MODELS. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 820 (1). ISSN 0004-637X

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Abstract

During the first few days after explosion, Type II supernovae (SNe) are dominated by relatively simple physics.
Theoretical predictions regarding early-time SN light curves in the ultraviolet (UV) and optical bands are thus quite
robust. We present, for the first time, a sample of 57 R-band SN II light curves that are well-monitored during their
rise, with >5 detections during the first 10 days after discovery, and a well-constrained time of explosion to within
1–3 days. We show that the energy per unit mass (E/M) can be deduced to roughly a factor of five by comparing
early-time optical data to the 2011 model of Rabinak & Waxman, while the progenitor radius cannot be determined
based on R-band data alone. We find that SN II explosion energies span a range of E/M = (0.2–20) × 1051 erg/
(10 M), and have a mean energy per unit mass of E M 0.85 1051 á ñ= ´ erg/(10 M), corrected for Malmquist
bias. Assuming a small spread in progenitor masses, this indicates a large intrinsic diversity in explosion energy.
Moreover, E/M is positively correlated with the amount of 56Ni produced in the explosion, as predicted by some
recent models of core-collapse SNe. We further present several empirical correlations. The peak magnitude is
correlated with the decline rate (Dm15), the decline rate is weakly correlated with the rise time, and the rise time is
not significantly correlated with the peak magnitude. Faster declining SNe are more luminous and have longer rise
times. This limits the possible power sources for such events.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0201 Astronomical And Space Sciences, 0305 Organic Chemistry, 0306 Physical Chemistry (Incl. Structural)
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Divisions: Astrophysics Research Institute
Publisher: IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 07 Feb 2017 15:17
Last Modified: 07 Sep 2017 18:13
DOI or Identification number: 10.3847/0004-637X/820/1/33
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/5471

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