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Read-Across for Rat Oral Gavage Repeated-Dose Toxicity for Short-Chain Mono-Alkylphenols: A Case Study

Mellor, CL and Schultz, TW and Przybylak, KR and Richarz, AN and Bradbury, SP and Cronin, MTD (2017) Read-Across for Rat Oral Gavage Repeated-Dose Toxicity for Short-Chain Mono-Alkylphenols: A Case Study. Computational Toxicology, 2. pp. 1-11. ISSN 2468-1113

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Abstract

Short-chain mono-alkylphenols provide an example of where a category-approach to read-across may be used to estimate the repeated-dose endpoint for a number of derivatives. Specifically, the NOAELs of 50 mg/kg bw/d for mono-methylphenols based on a LOAEL of very low systemic toxicity can be read across with confidence to untested mono-alkylphenols in the category. These simple alkylphenols are non-reactive and exhibit an unspecific, reversible polar narcosis mode of toxic action. Briefly, polar narcotics act via unspecific, reversible interactions with biological membranes in a manner similar to cataleptic anaesthetics. The read-across premise includes rapid and complete absorption via the gastrointestinal tract, distribution in the circulatory system, first-pass Phase 2 metabolism in the liver, and elimination of sulphates and glucuronides in the urine. Thus, toxicokinetic parameters are considered to be similar and have the same toxicological significance. Five analogues have high quality experimental oral repeated-dose toxicity data (i.e., OECD TG 408 or OECD TG 422). These repeated-dose toxicity test results exhibit qualitative consistency in symptoms. Typical findings include decreased body weight and slightly increased liver and kidney weights which are generally without concurrent histopathological effects. The sub-chronic findings are quantitatively consistent with the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of ≥ 50 mg/kg bw/d. Chemical similarity between the analogues is readily defined, and data uncertainty associated with the similarities in toxicokinetic properties, as well as toxicodynamic properties, are low. Uncertainty associated with mechanistic relevance and completeness of the read-across is low-to-moderate, largely because there is no adverse outcome pathway or intermediate event data. Uncertainty associated with mechanistic relevance and completeness of the read-across is reduced by the concordance of in vivo, in vitro, USEPA toxicity forecaster (ToxCast) results, as well as the in silico data. The rat oral repeated-dose NOAEL values for the source substances can be read across to fill the data gaps of the untested analogues in this category with uncertainty deemed equivalent to results from a TG 408 assessment.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier
Date Deposited: 10 Mar 2017 10:23
Last Modified: 22 Jun 2017 10:33
DOI or Identification number: 10.1016/j.comtox.2017.03.003
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/5726

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