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Modulation of Antimalarial Activity at a Putative Bisquinoline Receptor in vivo Using Fluorinated Bisquinolines

Fielding, AJ and Evans, PG and Alizadeh, S and Bisby, R and Drew, MGB and Del Casino, A and Dunn, JF and Randle, LE and Dempster, NM and Nahar, L and Sarker, SD and Cantú Reinhard, FG and de Visser, SP and Dascombe, MJ and Ismail, FMD (2017) Modulation of Antimalarial Activity at a Putative Bisquinoline Receptor in vivo Using Fluorinated Bisquinolines. Chemistry - A European Journal. ISSN 0947-6539

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Abstract

Antimalarials can interact with heme covalently, by - interactions or hydrogen bonding. Consequently, the prototropy of 4-aminoquinolines and quinoline methanols was investigated using quantum mechanics. Calculations showed mefloquine protonated preferentially at the piperidine and was impeded at the endocyclic nitrogen due to electronic rather than steric factors. In gas phase calculations, 7-substituted mono- and bis-4-aminoquinolines were preferentially protonated at the endocyclic quinoline nitrogen. By contrast, compounds with a trifluoromethyl substituent on both the 2- and 8-positions, reversed the order of protonation which now favored the exocyclic secondary amine nitrogen at the 4-position. Loss of antimalarial efficacy by CF3 groups simultaneously occupying the 2- and 8-positions was recovered if the CF3 group occupied the 7-position. Hence, trifluromethyl groups buttressing quinolinyl nitrogen shifted binding of antimalarials to hematin, enabling switching from endocyclic to the exocyclic N. Both theoretical calculations (DFT calculations: B3LYP/6- 31+G*) and crystal structure of (±)-trans-N1,N2-bis-(2,8-ditrifluoromethylquinolin-4- yl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine were used to reveal preferred mode(s) of interaction with hematin. The order of antimalarial activity in vivo followed the capacity for a redox change of the iron(III)state which has important implications for the future rational design of 4- aminoquinoline antimalarials.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the accepted version of the following article: Fielding, A. J., Lukinovic, V., Evans, P., Alizadeh, s., Bisby, R., Drew, M., DEL CASINO, A., Dunn, J., Randle, L., Dempster, N., Lutfun, N., Satyajit, S., Reinhard, F. G. C., de Visser, S. P., Dascombe, M. and Ismail, F. (2017), Modulation of Antimalarial Activity at a Putative Bisquinoline Receptor in vivo Using Fluorinated Bisquinolines. Chem. Eur. J.. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/chem.201605099, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201605099
Uncontrolled Keywords: 03 Chemical Sciences
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Wiley
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 06 Mar 2017 12:00
Last Modified: 06 Sep 2017 13:25
DOI or Identification number: 10.1002/chem.201605099
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/5767

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