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In vitro susceptibilities of Neoscytalidium spp. sequence types to antifungal agents and antimicrobial photodynamic treatment with phenothiazinium photosensitizers

Tonani, L and Morosini, NS and de Menezes, HD and Bonifácio da Silva, MEN and Wainwright, M and Braga, GÚL and von Zeska Kress, MR (2017) In vitro susceptibilities of Neoscytalidium spp. sequence types to antifungal agents and antimicrobial photodynamic treatment with phenothiazinium photosensitizers. Fungal Biology. ISSN 1878-6146

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Abstract

Neoscytalidium spp. are ascomycetous fungi consisting of pigmented and hyaline varieties both able to cause skin and nail infection. Their colour-based identification is inaccurate and may compromise the outcome of the studies with these fungi. The aim of this study was to genotype 32 isolates morphologically identified as Neoscytalidium dimidiatum or Neoscytalidium dimidiatum var. hyalinum by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), differentiate the two varieties by their sequence types (STs), evaluate their susceptibility to seven commercial antifungal drugs [amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole (VOR), terbinafine (TER), 5-flucytosine (5FC), ketoconazole (KET), fluconazole (FLU), and caspofungin (CAS)], and also to the antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) with the phenothiazinium photosensitizers (PSs) methylene blue (MB), new methylene blue (NMBN), toluidine blue O (TBO), and the pentacyclic derivative S137. The efficacy of each PS was determined, initially, based on its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Additionally, the APDT effects with each PS on the survival of ungerminated and germinated arthroconidia of both varieties were evaluated. Seven loci of Neoscytalidium spp. were sequenced on MLST revealing eight polymorphic sites and six STs. All N. dimidiatum var. hyalinum isolates were clustered in a single ST. AMB, VOR, and TER were the most effective antifungal agents against both varieties. The hyaline variety isolates were much less tolerant to the azoles than the isolates of the pigmented variety. APDT with S137 showed the lowest MIC for all the isolates of both varieties. APDT with all the PSs killed both ungerminated and germinated arthroconidia of both varieties reducing the survival up to 5 logs. Isolates of the hyaline variety were also less tolerant to APDT. APDT with the four PSs also increased the plasma membrane permeability of arthroconidia of both varieties but only NMBN and S137 caused peroxidation of the membrane lipids. © 2017 British Mycological Society.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0605 Microbiology, 0607 Plant Biology
Subjects: Q Science > QK Botany
Q Science > QR Microbiology
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier
Date Deposited: 30 Oct 2017 10:33
Last Modified: 30 Oct 2017 10:33
DOI or Identification number: 10.1016/j.funbio.2017.08.009
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/7434

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