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Stabilisation of soft soil using binary blending of high calcium fly ash and palm oil fuel ash

Jafer, HM and Atherton, W and Sadique, MM and Ruddock, F and Loffill, E (2017) Stabilisation of soft soil using binary blending of high calcium fly ash and palm oil fuel ash. Applied Clay Science. ISSN 0169-1317

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Abstract

Lime and/or Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) are the traditional binders used in soft soil stabilisation. However, their manufacture has a negative impact on the environment. This paper reports the results of experimental work for the optimisation of a binary blended cementitious binder (BBCB) using two types of fly ash as an alternative for use in soft soil stabilisation. The optimum content of the high calcium fly ash (HCFA) was initially determined along with the effect of grinding activation on the performance of HCFA. Subsequently, the effect of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) pozzolanic reactivity on the engineering properties of soft soil, stabilised with HCFA, was investigated by producing different binary mixtures of HCFA and POFA. Based on the Atterberg limits and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests, the combination of POFA with HCFA results in a considerably lower plasticity index (PI) and higher compressive strength than those obtained from the soil treated with HCFA alone. Substantial changes in the microstructure and binders of the stabilised soil over curing time were evidenced by SEM imaging and XRD analysis. A solid and coherent structure was achieved after treatment with BBCB as evidenced by the formation of C-S-H, portlandite and ettringite as well as secondary calcite.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 04 Earth Sciences, 09 Engineering
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Divisions: Civil Engineering
Publisher: Elsevier
Date Deposited: 01 Dec 2017 12:03
Last Modified: 01 Dec 2017 12:03
DOI or Identification number: 10.1016/j.clay.2017.11.030
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/7639

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