Facial reconstruction

Search LJMU Research Online

Browse Repository | Browse E-Theses

PURIFICATION AND INTERACTION STUDIES OF HISTONE, HMGB, AND PPI PROTEINS, FACILITATED BY THE DIPOLAR NATURE OF HMGBS

Smallman, H (2018) PURIFICATION AND INTERACTION STUDIES OF HISTONE, HMGB, AND PPI PROTEINS, FACILITATED BY THE DIPOLAR NATURE OF HMGBS. Masters thesis, Liverpool John Moores University.

[img]
Preview
Text
2018smallmanmphil.pdf - Published Version

Download (4MB) | Preview

Abstract

High mobility group box (HMGB) proteins are the most abundant non-histone proteins in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells and are highly conserved in animals. They bind dynamically to chromosomal DNA, interact with other proteins including transcription regulators, and have key roles in gene transcription and DNA repair. These fundamental activities require HMGB proteins to interact with the histone proteins found in chromatin, but the precise mechanisms remain unclear - the work here provides steps towards their clarification. Acid extraction of histones from chicken erythrocytes was explored, as this provides high yields without the use of ultracentrifugation. Histone protein markers (MW range 11.4 – 22.5kDa) suitable for use with SDS-PAGE were prepared using sulphuric acid extraction. For future research, almost pure histone octamers were also prepared, using phosphoric acid extraction combined with potassium chloride to ensure the octamers remained intact and in a nuclear-like environment. The remaining work was based on proteins extracted by mild methods from chicken erythrocytes to retain post-translational modifications. A nuclear protein set was isolated containing almost entirely histones and HMGB proteins, and was subject to cation-exchange chromatography, with phosphate buffers chosen to partially simulate nuclear conditions. HMGB molecules have a C-terminal acidic tail which in free solution is folded back onto the remaining basic part of the protein. Analysis of the chromatogram peaks suggested the HMGB proteins had unfolded into a dipolar configuration, with their basic parts binding to the cation-exchange column and their acidic tails binding to the histones. Gel filtration chromatography applied to fractions eluted from the cation-exchange column suggested the presence of one or more unidentified complexes. Native HMGB proteins where isolated using a novel method based on their dipolar nature. At high concentration, HMGB1 proteins were used to pull out a potential HMGB1/FKBP3 complex from a pool of nuclear proteins. Technology to significantly enhance the concentration of HMGB1 in chicken plasma was also developed, as the basis for prompt, low cost measurement of HMGB1 in biofluids (this has medical applications, such as in cancer diagnosis and prognosis). Further exploiting the dipolar nature of HMGB proteins, a method was developed for isolating the peptidyl-prolyl isomerases FKBP3 and Cyp B.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Chromatin; Histones; HMGB1; FKBP3
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Date Deposited: 24 Apr 2018 09:54
Last Modified: 24 Apr 2018 09:54
DOI or Identification number: 10.24377/LJMU.t.00008566
Supervisors: Wood, C, Evans, K and Baldwin, J
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/8566

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item