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The genetic basis of size in pet dogs: The study of quantitative genetic variation in an undergraduate laboratory practical.

Wilding, CS (2018) The genetic basis of size in pet dogs: The study of quantitative genetic variation in an undergraduate laboratory practical. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 46 (6). pp. 623-629. ISSN 1470-8175

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Abstract

The teaching of quantitative genetic variation in the undergraduate laboratory practical environment can be difficult as, for quantitative phenotypes that are under the control of multiple loci, detection of phenotypic differences caused by individual variants is problematical without large samples, impractical in such classes. Pet dogs provide a clear example of quantitative genetic variation with individual breeds ranging in size from 1 to 70 kg weight yet with little intrabreed variability. In contrast to humans where there are few identified genetic variants known to be involved in the genetically controlled size phenotype, in dogs, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes have been demonstrated to explain half of the phenotypic variance. In the practical described here, a single G-A SNP (within intron 2 of the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene) is studied through PCR, sequencing, and bioinformatics. Average breed weight of dogs of different genotypes at this SNP show significant differences in size (median [IQR] of AA = 10 kg [6-15 kg], AG = 23.75 kg [14-30 kg], GG = 30 kg [24.5-37 kg] from our class data) with an estimate of just ≈N = 16 dogs needing to be genotyped to demonstrate a significant difference in size between dogs harboring the two homozygous genotypes. In the practical described herein, from a single laboratory and a single computer session, students are able to see the clear effect of genotype on a quantitative trait. Examination of the variant in the Ensembl browser (www.ensembl.org) allows students to understand the genomic basis of this variant and appreciate the wealth of data and information publicly available in genome browsers. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(6):623-629, 2018.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Wilding, C. (2018), The genetic basis of size in pet dogs: The study of quantitative genetic variation in an undergraduate laboratory practical. Biochem Mol Biol Educ, 46: 623-629, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmb.21180. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1302 Curriculum And Pedagogy
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH426 Genetics
Q Science > QL Zoology
Divisions: Natural Sciences and Psychology
Publisher: Wiley
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 07 Dec 2018 11:04
Last Modified: 07 Dec 2018 11:08
DOI or Identification number: 10.1002/bmb.21180
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/9783

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