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Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy with Phenothiazinium Photosensitizers in non-vertebrate model Galleria mellonella infected with Fusarium keratoplasticum and Fusarium moniliforme.

Paziani, MH, Tonani, L, de Menezes, HD, Bachmann, L, Wainwright, M, Leite Braga, GÚ and von Zeska Kress, MR (2018) Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy with Phenothiazinium Photosensitizers in non-vertebrate model Galleria mellonella infected with Fusarium keratoplasticum and Fusarium moniliforme. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, 25. pp. 197-203. ISSN 1873-1597

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Abstract

Fusarium keratoplasticum and Fusarium moniliforme are filamentous fungi common in the environment and cause mycosis in both animals and plants. Human infections include mycetoma, keratitis and onychomycosis, while deeper mycosis occurs in immunocompromised patients. Most of the Fusarium spp. are frequently resistant to treatment with currently used antifungals. The frequent occurrence of antifungal resistance has motivated the study of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy as an alternative treatment for fungal infections. Many studies have investigated the in vitro use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to kill fungi, but rarely in animal models of infection. Thus, here we employed the invertebrate wax moth Galleria mellonella to study the in vivo effects of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with three different phenothiazinium photosensitizers, methylene blue, new methylene blue N and the pentacyclic S137 against infection with microconidia of Fusarium keratoplasticum and Fusarium moniliforme. The effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using these photosensitizers and light-emitting diodes with an emission peak at 635 nm and an integrated irradiance from 570 to 670 nm of 9.8 mW cm-2 was investigated regarding the toxicity, fungal burden, larval survival and cellular immune response. The results from this model indicate that antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with methylene blue, new methylene blue N and S137 is efficient for the treatment of infection with F. keratoplasticum and F. moniliforme. The efficiency can be attributed to the fungal cell damage caused by antimicrobial photodynamic therapy which facilitates the action of the host immune response.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1112 Oncology And Carcinogenesis
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier
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Date Deposited: 09 Jan 2019 11:12
Last Modified: 09 Jan 2019 11:18
DOI or Identification number: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2018.12.010
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/9910

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