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UBR5 is a Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase involved in Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Recovery from Atrophy

Seaborne, RA, Hughes, DC, Turner, DC, Owens, DJ, Baehr, LM, Gorski, P, Semenova, EA, Borisov, OV, Larin, AK, Popov, DV, Generozov, EV, Sutherland, H, Ahmetov, II, Jarvis, JC, Bodine, SC and Sharples, AP (2019) UBR5 is a Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase involved in Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Recovery from Atrophy. The Journal of Physiology. ISSN 0022-3751

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We have recently identified that a HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligase, named UBR5, was epigenetically altered (via DNA methylation) after human skeletal muscle hypertrophy, where its gene expression was positively correlated with increased lean leg mass in humans [1]. This was counterintuitive given the well-defined role of other E3 ligase family members, MuRF1 and MAFbx in muscle atrophy. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to investigate this relatively uncharacterised E3 ubiquitin ligase using multiple in-vivo and in-vitro models of skeletal muscle atrophy, injury, recovery from atrophy as well as anabolism and hypertrophy. We report for the first time, that during atrophy evoked by tetrodotoxin (TTX) nerve silencing in rats, the UBR5 promoter was significantly hypomethylated with a concomitant increase in gene expression early (3 & 7 days) after the induction of atrophy. However, at these timepoints larger increases in MuRF1/MAFbx were observed, and UBR5 expression had returned to baseline levels during later atrophy (14 days) where muscle mass loss was greatest. We confirmed an alternate gene expression profile for UBR5 versus MuRF1/MAFbx in a secondary model of atrophy induced by 7 days continuous low frequency electrical stimulation, where UBR5 demonstrated no significant increase, whereas MuRF1/MAFbx were elevated. Further, after partial (52%) recovery of muscle mass following 7 days TTX-cessation, UBR5 was hypomethylated and increased at the gene expression level, while alternately, reductions in gene expression of MuRF1 and MAFbx were observed. To substantiate these gene expression findings, we observed a significant increase in UBR5 protein abundance after full recovery (14 days) of muscle mass from hindlimb unloading (HU) in rats. Aged rats also demonstrated a similar temporal increase in UBR5 protein abundance after recovery from HU. Further, we confirmed significant increases in UBR5 protein during recovery from nerve crush injury in mice at 28 and 45 days, that related to a full recovery of muscle mass between 45-60 days. During anabolism and hypertrophy, UBR5 gene expression increased following an acute bout of mechanical loading in three-dimensional bioengineered mouse muscle in-vitro, and after chronic electrical stimulation-induced hypertrophy in rats in-vivo, without increases in MuRF1/MAFbx. Additionally, increased UBR5 protein abundance was identified following synergist ablation/functional overload (FO)-induced hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle in mice in-vivo, and finally over a 7-day time-course of regeneration in primary human muscle cells in-vitro. Finally, genetic association studies (> 700,000 SNPs) in human cohorts identified that the A alleles of rs10505025 and rs4734621 SNPs were strongly associated with larger cross-sectional area of fast-twitch muscle fibres and favoured strength/power versus endurance/untrained phenotypes. Overall, we suggest that UBR5 is a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase that is alternatively regulated compared to MuRF1/MAFbx, and is elevated during early atrophy (but not later atrophy), recovery, anabolism and hypertrophy in animals in-vivo as well as during human muscle cell regeneration in-vitro. In humans, genetic variations of the UBR5 gene are strongly associated with larger fast-twitch muscle fibres and strength/power performance.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Seaborne, R. , Hughes, D. , Turner, D. , Owens, D. , Baehr, L. , Gorski, P. , Semenova, E. , Borisov, O. , Larin, A. , Popov, D. , Generozov, E. , Sutherland, H. , Ahmetov, I. , Jarvis, J. , Bodine, S. and Sharples, A. (2019), UBR5 is a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in skeletal muscle hypertrophy and recovery from atrophy. J Physiol. Accepted Author Manuscript., which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP278073. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Wiley
Date Deposited: 16 May 2019 12:31
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 09:33
DOI or ID number: 10.1113/JP278073
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/10463
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