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Prodrugs of new psychoactive substances (NPS): a new challenge

Elliott, S, Holdbrook, T and Brandt, SD (2020) Prodrugs of new psychoactive substances (NPS): a new challenge. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 65 (3). pp. 913-920. ISSN 0022-1198

JOFS-19-562.R1_accepted_uncorrected.pdf - Accepted Version

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The concept of a substance acting as a prodrug for an intended drug is not new and has been known and utilised with particular benefits within medicine for efficacy and patient safety. Prodrugs of psychoactive substances are also not particularly new but this has also extended to considerations of prodrugs of new psychoactive substances (NPS). The continuing evolution of NPS has been a constant forensic challenge. In some countries this constant evolution has led to the introduction of various alternative methods of drug control. Whether for this reason or in the pursuit of user experimentation, prodrugs of NPS have been discussed, developed and exploited, posing some distinct forensic challenges. This is especially the case within toxicological analysis of biological fluids and for some substances, also forensic chemical analysis, through inherent instability of the prodrug or metabolism in the body. Particular examples of NPS prodrugs include 1-propanoyl-LSD, 1-butanoyl-LSD, 1-acetyl-LSD and 2C-B-AN. This is in addition to associated substances and medicines that may be used for an intended pharmacological effect. Various prodrugs for stimulant and hallucinogenic substances in particular have appeared in the literature and have been discussed within drug user forums and made available for purchase online. Presently, drug monitoring data from national and international systems indicate that prodrugs are not widely available or problematic. Nevertheless, it is important that there is sufficient awareness of the prodrug concept and potential impact and associated forensic implications, not just for chemical analysis but also for toxicological considerations when a substance has been used.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Prodrugs of new psychoactive substances (NPS): a new challenge, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14268. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0399 Other Chemical Sciences, 0699 Other Biological Sciences, 1103 Clinical Sciences
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA1001 Forensic Medicine. Medical jurisprudence. Legal medicine
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Wiley
Date Deposited: 18 Dec 2019 09:55
Last Modified: 13 Jan 2022 14:30
DOI or ID number: 10.1111/1556-4029.14268
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/11926
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