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Quantitative Analysis of Non-Linear Probabilistic State Estimation Filters for Deployment on Dynamic Unmanned Systems

McLoughlin, B (2020) Quantitative Analysis of Non-Linear Probabilistic State Estimation Filters for Deployment on Dynamic Unmanned Systems. Doctoral thesis, Liverpool John Moores University.

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The work conducted in this thesis is a part of an EU Horizon 2020 research initiative project known as DigiArt. This part of the DigiArt project presents and explores the design, formulation and implementation of probabilistically orientated state estimation algorithms with focus towards unmanned system positioning and three-dimensional (3D) mapping. State estimation algorithms are considered an influential aspect of any dynamic system with autonomous capabilities. Possessing the ability to predictively estimate future conditions enables effective decision making and anticipating any possible changes in the environment. Initial experimental procedures utilised a wireless ultra-wide band (UWB) based communication network. This system functioned through statically situated beacon nodes used to localise a dynamically operating node. The simultaneous deployment of this UWB network, an unmanned system and a Robotic Total Station (RTS) with active and remote tracking features enabled the characterisation of the range measurement errors associated with the UWB network. These range error metrics were then integrated into an Range based Extended Kalman Filter (R-EKF) state estimation algorithm with active outlier identification to outperform the native approach used by the UWB system for two-dimensional (2D) pose estimation.The study was then expanded to focus on state estimation in 3D, where a Six Degreeof-Freedom EKF (6DOF-EKF) was designed using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) as its primary observation source. A two step method was proposed which extracted information between consecutive LiDAR scans. Firstly, motion estimation concerning Cartesian states x, y and the unmanned system’s heading (ψ) was achieved through a 2D feature matching process. Secondly, the extraction and alignment of ground planes from the LiDAR scan enabled motion extraction for Cartesian position z and attitude angles roll (θ) and pitch (φ). Results showed that the ground plane alignment failed when two scans were at 10.5◦ offset. Therefore, to overcome this limitation an Error State Kalman Filter (ES-KF) was formulated and deployed as a sub-system within the 6DOF-EKF. This enabled the successful tracking of roll, pitch and the calculation of z. The 6DOF-EKF was seen to outperform the R-EKF and the native UWB approach, as it was much more stable, produced less noise in its position estimations and provided 3D pose estimation.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: LiDAR; Kalman Filter; Unmanned Systems; State Estimation; Bayes Filter
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Engineering
Date Deposited: 05 Mar 2020 15:46
Last Modified: 08 Nov 2022 13:25
DOI or ID number: 10.24377/LJMU.t.00012398
Supervisors: Bezombes, F
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/12398
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