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A comprehensive review for groundwater contamination and remediation: occurrence, migration and adsorption modeling

Al-Hashimi, O, Hashim, KS, Loffill, E, Marolt Cebasek, T, Nakouti, I, Faisal, AAH and Al-Ansari, N (2021) A comprehensive review for groundwater contamination and remediation: occurrence, migration and adsorption modeling. Molecules, 26 (19). ISSN 1420-3049

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Provision of safe water for people is a human right; historically, a major number of people depend on groundwater as a source of water for their needs, such as agriculture, industrial or human activities. Water resources have recently been affected by organic and/or inorganic contaminants as a result of population growth and increased anthropogenic activity, soil leaching, and pollution. Water resource remediation has become a serious environmental concern since it has a direct impact on many aspects of people’s lives. For decades, the pump-and-treat method has been considered the predominant treatment process for the remediation of contaminated groundwater with organic and inorganic contaminants. On the other side, this technique missed sustainability and the new concept of using renewable energy. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) have been implemented as an alternative to conventional pump-and-treat systems for remediating polluted groundwater because of their effectiveness and ease of implementation. In this paper, a review of the importance of groundwater, contamination, the biological, physical besides the chemical remediation techniques have been discussed. In this review, the principles of the permeable reactive barrier’s use as a remediation technique have been introduced along with commonly used reactive materials and the recent applications of the permeable reactive barrier in the remediation of different contaminants, such as heavy metals, chlorinated solvents and pesticides. This paper also discusses the characteristic of reactive media and contaminants uptake mechanisms. Finally, remediation isotherms, the breakthrough curves and kinetic sorption models are also being presented. It has been found that groundwater could be contaminated by different pollutants and must be remediated to fit the human, agricultural and industrial needs. PRB technique is an efficient treatment process that is an inexpensive alternative for the pump and treat procedure and represent a promising technique to treat groundwater pollution.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0304 Medicinal and Biomolecular Chemistry, 0305 Organic Chemistry, 0307 Theoretical and Computational Chemistry
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Divisions: Civil Engineering & Built Environment
Publisher: MDPI AG
Date Deposited: 27 Sep 2021 11:52
Last Modified: 23 Nov 2021 12:30
DOI or ID number: 10.3390/molecules26195913
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/15560
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