Facial reconstruction

Search LJMU Research Online

Browse Repository | Browse E-Theses

The codification of hazard and its impact on the hazard versus risk controversy

Doe, JE, Boobis, AR, Cohen, SM, Dellarco, VL, Fenner-Crisp, PA, Moretto, A, Pastoor, TP, Schoeny, RS, Seed, JG and Wolf, DC (2021) The codification of hazard and its impact on the hazard versus risk controversy. Archives of Toxicology. ISSN 0340-5761

The codification of hazard and its impact on the hazard versus risk controversy.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (619kB) | Preview


The long running controversy about the relative merits of hazard-based versus risk-based approaches has been investigated. There are three levels of hazard codification: level 1 divides chemicals into dichotomous bands of hazardous and non-hazardous; level 2 divides chemicals into bands of hazard based on severity and/or potency; and level 3 places each chemical on a continuum of hazard based on severity and/or potency. Any system which imposes compartments onto a continuum will give rise to issues at the boundaries, especially with only two compartments. Level 1 schemes are only justifiable if there is no variation in severity, or potency or if there is no threshold. This is the assumption implicit in GHS/EU classification for carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity and mutagenicity. However, this assumption has been challenged. Codification level 2 hazard assessments offer a range of choices and reduce the built-in conflict inherent in the level 1 process. Level 3 assessments allow a full range of choices between the extremes and reduce the built-in conflict even more. The underlying reason for the controversy between hazard and risk is the use of level 1 hazard codification schemes in situations where there are ranges of severity and potency which require the use of level 2 or level 3 hazard codification. There is not a major difference between level 2 and level 3 codification, and they can both be used to select appropriate risk management options. Existing level 1 codification schemes should be reviewed and developed into level 2 schemes where appropriate.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1115 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor > HD61 Risk Management
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Springer Verlag
Date Deposited: 29 Sep 2021 09:15
Last Modified: 29 Sep 2021 09:15
DOI or ID number: 10.1007/s00204-021-03145-6
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/15570
View Item View Item