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Targetable Pathways for Alleviating Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurodegeneration of Metabolic and Non-Metabolic Diseases.

Millichap, LE, Damiani, E, Tiano, L and Hargreaves, IP (2021) Targetable Pathways for Alleviating Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurodegeneration of Metabolic and Non-Metabolic Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22 (21). ISSN 1661-6596

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Many neurodegenerative and inherited metabolic diseases frequently compromise nervous system function, and mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated as key events leading to neurodegeneration. Mitochondria are essential for neuronal function; however, these organelles are major sources of endogenous reactive oxygen species and are vulnerable targets for oxidative stress-induced damage. The brain is very susceptible to oxidative damage due to its high metabolic demand and low antioxidant defence systems, therefore minimal imbalances in the redox state can result in an oxidative environment that favours tissue damage and activates neuroinflammatory processes. Mitochondrial-associated molecular pathways are often compromised in the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, including the parkin/PINK1, Nrf2, PGC1α, and PPARγ pathways. Impairments to these signalling pathways consequently effect the removal of dysfunctional mitochondria, which has been suggested as contributing to the development of neurodegeneration. Mitochondrial dysfunction prevention has become an attractive therapeutic target, and there are several molecular pathways that can be pharmacologically targeted to remove damaged mitochondria by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis or mitophagy, as well as increasing the antioxidant capacity of the brain, in order to alleviate mitochondrial dysfunction and prevent the development and progression of neurodegeneration in these disorders. Compounds such as natural polyphenolic compounds, bioactive quinones, and Nrf2 activators have been reported in the literature as novel therapeutic candidates capable of targeting defective mitochondrial pathways in order to improve mitochondrial function and reduce the severity of neurodegeneration in these disorders.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0399 Other Chemical Sciences, 0604 Genetics, 0699 Other Biological Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: MDPI
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 03 Dec 2021 12:42
Last Modified: 03 Dec 2021 12:45
DOI or ID number: 10.3390/ijms222111444
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/15869
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