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Kinematics with Gaia DR2: the force of a dwarf

Carrillo, I, Minchev, I, Steinmetz, M, Monari, G, Laporte, CFP, Anders, F, Queiroz, ABA, Chiappini, C, Khalatyan, A, Martig, M, McMillan, P, Santiago, BX and Youakim, K (2019) Kinematics with Gaia DR2: the force of a dwarf. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 490 (1). pp. 797-812. ISSN 0035-8711

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We use Gaia DR2 astrometric and line-of-sight velocity information combined with two sets of distances obtained with a Bayesian inference method to study the 3D velocity distribution in the Milky Way disc. We search for variations in all Galactocentric cylindrical velocity components (Vϕ, VR, and Vz) with Galactic radius, azimuth, and distance from the disc mid-plane. We confirm recent work showing that bulk vertical motions in the R–z plane are consistent with a combination of breathing and bending modes. In the x–y plane, we show that, although the amplitudes change, the structure produced by these modes is mostly invariant as a function of distance from the plane. Comparing to two different Galactic disc models, we demonstrate that the observed patterns can drastically change in short time intervals, showing the complexity of understanding the origin of vertical perturbations. A strong radial VR gradient was identified in the inner disc, transitioning smoothly from 16 km s−1 kpc−1 at an azimuth of 30° < ϕ < 45° ahead of the Sun-Galactic centre line to −16 km s−1 kpc−1 at an azimuth of −45° < ϕ < −30° lagging the solar azimuth. We use a simulation with no significant recent mergers to show that exactly the opposite trend is expected from a barred potential, but overestimated distances can flip this trend to match the data. Alternatively, using an N-body simulation of the Sagittarius dwarf–Milky Way interaction, we demonstrate that a major recent perturbation is necessary to reproduce the observations. Such an impact may have strongly perturbed the existing bar or even triggered its formation in the last 1–2 Gyr.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ©: 2019 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions: Astrophysics Research Institute
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 28 Feb 2022 11:55
Last Modified: 28 Feb 2022 12:00
DOI or ID number: 10.1093/mnras/stz2343
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/16425
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