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Risk factors for post sternotomy wound complications across the patient journey: a systematised review of the literature

Morrell-Scott, NE, Lotto, RR, Spencer, E, Grant, M, Penson, P and Jones, ID (2022) Risk factors for post sternotomy wound complications across the patient journey: a systematised review of the literature. Heart and Lung: the journal of acute and critical care, 55. pp. 89-101. ISSN 0147-9563

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Background: Around 36,000 cardiac operations are undertaken in the United Kingdom annually, with most procedures undertaken via median sternotomy. Wound complications occur in up to 8% of operations, with an associated mortality rate of around 47% in late or undetected cases.
Objective: To undertake a systematised literature review to identify pre-operative, peri-operative and post-operative risk factors associated with sternal wound complications.
Methods: Healthcare databases were searched for articles written in the English language and published between 2013 and 2021. Inclusion criteria were quantitative studies involving patients undergoing median sternotomy for cardiac surgery; sternal complications and risk factors.
Results: 1360 papers were identified, with 25 included in this review. Patient-related factors included: high BMI; diabetes; comorbidities; gender; age; presenting for surgery in a critical state; predictive risk scores; vascular disease; severe anaemia; medication such as steroids or α-blockers; and previous sternotomy. Peri-operative risk increased with specific types and combinations of surgical procedures. Sternal reopening was also associated with increased risk of sternal wound infection. Post-operative risk factors included a complicated recovery; the need for blood transfusions; respiratory complications; renal failure; non-diabetic hyperglycaemia; sternal asymmetry and sepsis.
Conclusion: Pre, peri and post-operative risk factors increase the risk of sternal wound complications in cardiac surgery. Generic risk assessment tools are primarily designed to provide mortality risk scores, with their ability to predict risk of wound infection questionable. Tools that incorporate factors throughout the operative journey are required to identify patients at risk of surgical wound infection.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Nursing; 1102 Cardiorespiratory Medicine and Haematology; 1110 Nursing
Subjects: Q Science > QP Physiology
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RD Surgery
Divisions: Nursing & Allied Health
Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 22 Apr 2022 15:25
Last Modified: 30 Apr 2023 00:50
DOI or ID number: 10.1016/j.hrtlng.2022.04.013
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/16688
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