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P450 gene duplication and divergence led to the evolution of dual novel functions and insecticide cross-resistance in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

Duarte, A, Pym, A, Garrood, WT, Troczka, BJ, Zimmer, CT, Davies, TGE, Nauen, R, O'Reilly, AO and Bass, C (2022) P450 gene duplication and divergence led to the evolution of dual novel functions and insecticide cross-resistance in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. PLoS Genetics, 18 (6). e1010279. ISSN 1553-7404

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Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1010279 (Published version)


The sustainable control of many highly damaging insect crop pests and disease vectors is threatened by the evolution of insecticide resistance. As a consequence, strategies have been developed that aim to prevent or delay resistance development by rotating or mixing insecticides with different modes of action (MoA). However, these approaches can be compromised by the emergence of mechanisms that confer cross-resistance to insecticides with different MoA. Despite the applied importance of cross-resistance, its evolutionary underpinnings remain poorly understood. Here we reveal how a single gene evolved the capacity to detoxify two structurally unrelated insecticides with different MoA. Using transgenic approaches we demonstrate that a specific variant of the cytochrome P450 CYP6ER1, previously shown to confer resistance to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid in the brown planthopper, N. lugens, also confers cross-resistance to the phenylpyrazole ethiprole. CYP6ER1 is duplicated in resistant strains, and we show that while the acquisition of mutations in two encoded substrate recognition sites (SRS) of one of the parologs led to resistance to imidacloprid, a different set of mutations, outside of known SRS, are primarily responsible for resistance to ethiprole. Epistatic interactions between these mutations and their genetic background suggest that the evolution of dual resistance from the same gene copy involved functional trade-offs in respect to CYP6ER1 catalytic activity for ethiprole versus imidacloprid. Surprisingly, the mutations leading to ethiprole and imidacloprid resistance do not confer the ability to detoxify the insecticide fipronil, another phenylpyrazole with close structural similarity to ethiprole. Taken together, these findings reveal how gene duplication and divergence can lead to the evolution of multiple novel functions from a single gene. From an applied perspective they also demonstrate how cross-resistance to structurally unrelated insecticides can evolve, and illustrate the difficulty in predicting cross-resistance profiles mediated by metabolic mechanisms.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0604 Genetics; Developmental Biology
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH426 Genetics
Divisions: Biological & Environmental Sciences (from Sep 19)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 27 Jun 2022 09:33
Last Modified: 12 Jul 2022 14:30
DOI or ID number: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1010279
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/17155
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