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Maximum luminosities of normal stripped-envelope supernovae are brighter than explosion models allow

Sollerman, J, Yang, S, Perley, D, Schulze, S, Fremling, C, Kasliwal, M, Shin, K and Racine, B (2022) Maximum luminosities of normal stripped-envelope supernovae are brighter than explosion models allow. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 657. ISSN 1432-0746

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Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202142049 (Published version)


Context. Stripped-envelope supernovae (SE SNe) of Type Ib and Type Ic are thought to be the result of explosions of massive stars that have lost their outer envelopes. The favored explosion mechanism is via core-collapse, with the shock later revived by neutrino heating. However, there is an upper limit to the amount of radioactive 56Ni that such models can accommodate. Recent studies in the literature point to a tension between the maximum luminosity from such simulations and the observations. Aims. We used a well-characterized sample of SE SNe from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) Bright Transient Survey (BTS) to scrutinize the observational caveats regarding estimates of the maximum luminosity (and thus the amount of ejected radioactive nickel) for the sample members. Methods. We employed the strict selection criteria for the BTS to collect a sample of spectroscopically classified normal Type Ibc SNe, for which we used the ZTF light curves to determine the maximum luminosity. We culled the sample further based on data quality, shape of the light curves, distances, and colors. Then we examined the uncertainties that may affect the measurements. The methodology of the sample construction based on this BTS sample can be used for other future investigations. Results. We analyzed the observational data, consisting of optical light curves and spectra, for the selected sub-samples. In total, we used 129 Type Ib or Type Ic BTS SNe with an initial rough luminosity distribution peaking at Mr? =? -17.61? ±? 0.72, and where 36% are apparently brighter than the theoretically predicted maximum brightness of Mr? =? -17.8. When we further culled this sample to ensure that the SNe are normal Type Ibc with good LC data within the Hubble flow, the sample of 94 objects gives Mr? =? -17.64? ±? 0.54. A main uncertainty in absolute magnitude determinations for SNe is the host galaxy extinction correction, but the reddened objects only get more luminous after corrections. If we simply exclude red objects, or those with unusual or uncertain colors, then we are left with 14 objects at Mr? =? -17.90? ±? 0.73, whereof a handful are most certainly brighter than the suggested theoretical limit. The main result of this study is thus that normal SNe Ibc do indeed reach luminosities above 1042.6 erg s-1, which is apparently in conflict with existing explosion models.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Science & Technology; Physical Sciences; Astronomy & Astrophysics; surveys; supernovae: general; BOLOMETRIC LIGHT CURVES; IC SUPERNOVAE; GALAXY; II.; ENVIRONMENT; PARAMETERS; DUST; IB; Astronomy & Astrophysics; 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions: Astrophysics Research Institute
Publisher: EDP Sciences
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 30 Jun 2022 10:38
Last Modified: 30 Jun 2022 10:38
DOI or ID number: 10.1051/0004-6361/202142049
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/17183
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