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Assessment of activity energy expenditure during competitive golf: The effects of bag carrying, electric or manual trolleys

Kasper, AM, O'Donnell, A, Langan-Evans, C, Jones, A, Lindsay, A, Murray, A and Close, GL (2022) Assessment of activity energy expenditure during competitive golf: The effects of bag carrying, electric or manual trolleys. European Journal of Sport Science. ISSN 1746-1391

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Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2022.2036817 (Published version)


Golf is a sport played around the globe, with an estimated 42.6 million people playing within the United Kingdom and United States of America alone. To date, there is limited data on the energy expenditure of golf. The present study assessed the activity energy expenditure (AEE) of 16 high-standard (handicap under 5) golfers who completed three rounds of competitive golf either carrying the golf bag (BC), using a manual push trolley (MT) or an electric trolley (ET) (Stewart Golf, Gloucester, UK). Prior to each round, participants were fitted with an Actiheart® accelerometer (Camntech, Fenstanton, UK) to estimate AEE, whilst ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and enjoyment were collected following each round. Data were analysed using a one-way repeated measures ANOVA, with Hedges g effect sizes (ES) calculated. Mean (SD) AEE was 688 ± 213 kcal for BC, 756 ± 210 kcal for MT and 663 ± 218 kcal for ET (p =.05) although these differences were deemed small or less. The ET condition resulted in the lowest mean heart rate, moderate or very large from BC or MT, respectively. There were no significant differences in enjoyment although perceived exertion was lowest in the ET condition. In summary, we report meaningful differences in AEE between the three conditions (p =.05), with perceived exertion and maximum HR being lowest when using the electric trolley. Golf may be considered as an effective intervention to increase step count and improve physical activity levels across the general population regardless of transportation methods of clubs.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: ACCELEROMETRY; Golf; HEALTH; HEART-RATE; IN-SEASON; Life Sciences & Biomedicine; MET; nutrition; physical activity; PLAYERS; SCALE; Science & Technology; Sport Sciences; Science & Technology; Life Sciences & Biomedicine; Sport Sciences; Golf; physical activity; MET; nutrition; HEART-RATE; IN-SEASON; ACCELEROMETRY; PLAYERS; HEALTH; SCALE; Golf; MET; nutrition; physical activity; 0913 Mechanical Engineering; 1106 Human Movement and Sports Sciences; Sport Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 07 Oct 2022 10:28
Last Modified: 07 Oct 2022 10:30
DOI or ID number: 10.1080/17461391.2022.2036817
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/17737
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