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Exploring the ‘teachable moments’ of questioning during training: a work-based coach development programme affecting behaviour change

Raya-Castellano, PE, McRobert, AP, Cárdenas, D, Fradua, L and Reeves, MJ (2022) Exploring the ‘teachable moments’ of questioning during training: a work-based coach development programme affecting behaviour change. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy. ISSN 1740-8989

Raya-Castellano et al., 2022 accepted.pdf - Accepted Version
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Background: Researchers in the field of sport pedagogy have highlighted questioning as a behaviour that facilitates athletes’ high-order thinking and problem-solving. However, previous studies have suggested that coaches ask a reduced number of questions during training that are typically convergent and lead players to predetermined responses. Formal coach development programmes (CDPs), intended to encourage the use of questioning, have been scrutinised for their limited impact on coaches’ practice. These criticisms have been made without consideration of the instances and situations during training that might present a better opportunity for asking different question types. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore coaches’ perceptions concerning potential ‘teachable moments’ to ask convergent and divergent questions during training at three data collection points, and to associate changes between knowledge and behaviour after a work-based CDP. Method: Six Spanish youth football coaches working for an elite academy were recruited to a longitudinal study. The study involved a six-week CDP delivered by a coach developer, in collaboration with the club’s Academy Management Team, and an experienced research team. Data collection occurred throughout 24-months interspersed by a workshop and two directed tasks organised in several stages: (1) Pre-systematic observations (Sep–Dec 2018) and (2) pre-interviews (Jan 2019), to identify coaches’ baseline behaviours and knowledge; (3) a workshop & directed task 1 (Feb 2019), encouraging coaches to experiment and self-discover how to implement questioning within their training contexts; (4) a directed task 2 (Feb–Mar 2019), facilitating coaches’ video-based and dialogic reflections about their questions; (5) post-systematic observations (Mar–May 2019) and (6) post-interviews (May 2019), capturing changes in knowledge and questioning after the intervention; and (7) consolidation interviews (May 2020), recording coaches’ knowledge stabilisation and further developments. Results and findings: Four coaches completed the full CDP, whilst the remaining two coaches did not participate in the second directed task. Qualitative data suggest that all coaches developed their understanding of which moments might be most appropriate to ask convergent or divergent questions. However, only the first group of coaches presented congruent changes between the timing in which they asked questions and their perceptions. This involved higher use of convergent questions (during practice) and divergent questions (in-between practices and when the coach stops practice). Conversely, coaches in the incomplete CDP, decreased or maintained their questioning values within most instances and suggested organisational and contextual factors hindering their engagement in this work-based CDP. Therefore, real opportunities to implement questioning techniques combined with reflective practice assisted by a coach developer are proposed to translate knowledge gained during CDPs into observable behaviours.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy on 02/06/22, available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/17408989.2022.2083095
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1302 Curriculum and Pedagogy; 1303 Specialist Studies in Education
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation Leisure > GV561 Sports > GV711 Coaching
G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation Leisure > GV561 Sports
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Taylor and Francis Group
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 16 Nov 2022 12:20
Last Modified: 02 Dec 2023 00:50
DOI or ID number: 10.1080/17408989.2022.2083095
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/18156
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