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Fuelling the female athlete: Carbohydrate and protein recommendations

Moore, DR, Sygo, J and Morton, JP (2021) Fuelling the female athlete: Carbohydrate and protein recommendations. European Journal of Sport Science, 22 (5). ISSN 1746-1391

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Optimal carbohydrate and protein intakes are vital for modulating training adaptation, recovery, and exercise performance. However, the research base underpinning contemporary sport nutrition guidelines has largely been conducted in male populations with a lack of consensus on whether the menstrual phase and associated changes in sex hormones allow broad application of these principles to female athletes. The present review will summarise our current understanding of carbohydrate and protein requirements in female athletes across the menstrual cycle and provide a critical analysis on how they compare to male athletes. On the basis of current evidence, we consider it premature to conclude that female athletes require sex specific guidelines in relation to CHO or protein requirements provided energy needs are met. However, there is a need for further research using sport-specific competition and training related exercise protocols that rigorously control for prior exercise, CHO/energy intake, contraceptive use and phase of menstrual cycle. Our overarching recommendation is to use current recommendations as a basis for adopting an individualised approach that takes into account athlete specific training and competition goals whilst also considering personal symptoms associated with the menstrual cycle.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: “This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in European Journal of Sport Science on 20th May 2021, available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2021.1922508
Uncontrolled Keywords: Science & Technology; Life Sciences & Biomedicine; Sport Sciences; Glycogen; muscle protein synthesis; performance; recovery; TOTAL-ENERGY EXPENDITURE; WHOLE-BODY LEUCINE; MUSCLE GLYCOGEN; MENSTRUAL-CYCLE; RESISTANCE EXERCISE; NITROGEN-BALANCE; GENDER-DIFFERENCES; LUTEAL-PHASE; MEN; REQUIREMENTS; Humans; Carbohydrates; Dietary Carbohydrates; Exercise; Energy Intake; Sports; Female; Male; Athletes; Glycogen; muscle protein synthesis; performance; recovery; Athletes; Carbohydrates; Dietary Carbohydrates; Energy Intake; Exercise; Female; Humans; Male; Sports; 0913 Mechanical Engineering; 1106 Human Movement and Sports Sciences; Sport Sciences
Subjects: T Technology > TX Home economics > TX341 Nutrition. Foods and food supply
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 11 Jan 2023 13:07
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2023 13:15
DOI or ID number: 10.1080/17461391.2021.1922508
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/18221
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