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Neuroprotection by Skimmianine in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated BV-2 Microglia

Ogunrinade, FA, Iwuanyanwu, VU, Sarker, SD and Olajide, OA (2023) Neuroprotection by Skimmianine in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated BV-2 Microglia. Molecules, 28 (3).

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Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28031317 (Published version)


Skimmianine is a furoquinoline alkaloid which is found in the Zanthoxylum genus and also in other plants of the Rutaceae family. This study evaluated the effects of skimmianine on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia. Cultured BV-2 cells were treated with skimmianine (10, 20 and 30 μM), followed by stimulation with LPS (100 ng/mL). Levels of TNFα and IL-6 in cell supernatants were measured using ELISA, while NO and PGE2 levels were evaluated with Griess assay and EIA, respectively. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression of iNOS, COX-2, phospho-p65 and phospho-IκBα. Results showed that Skimmianine reduced LPS-induced elevated the secretion of TNFα, IL-6, NO, and PGE2, as well as the increased protein expression of iNOS and COX-2. Experiments to elucidate the mechanisms of the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of skimmianine revealed the significant inhibition of LPS-induced increased NF-κB-mediated luciferase activity. Pre-treatment with skimmianine also reduced LPS-induced the increased phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65 and IκBα proteins. Furthermore, skimmianine interfered with the binding capacity of NF-κB to consensus sites. Skimmianine pre-treatment protected HT-22 cells from toxicity induced by microglia-conditioned media, as well as increasing MAP-2 expression. The results of this study suggest that skimmianine inhibits neuroinflammation in LPS-activated microglia by targeting the NF-κB activation pathway. Skimmianine also produced neuroprotection against neurotoxicity induced by microglia-conditioned media.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0304 Medicinal and Biomolecular Chemistry; 0305 Organic Chemistry; 0307 Theoretical and Computational Chemistry; Organic Chemistry
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: MDPI AG
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 01 Feb 2023 12:22
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2023 12:22
DOI or ID number: 10.3390/molecules28031317
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/18778
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