Facial reconstruction

Search LJMU Research Online

Browse Repository | Browse E-Theses

A review on the synthesis of bio-based surfactants using green chemistry principles

Stubbs, S, Yousaf, S and Khan, I (2022) A review on the synthesis of bio-based surfactants using green chemistry principles. DARU, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 30 (2). pp. 407-426. ISSN 1560-8115

A review on the synthesis of bio-based surfactants using green chemistry principles.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview
Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40199-022-00450-y (Published version)


Objectives: With increasing awareness of the potential adverse impact of conventional surfactants on the environment and human health, there is mounting interest in the development of bio-based surfactants (which are deemed to be safer, more affordable, are in abundance, are biodegradable, biocompatible and possess scalability, mildness and performance in formulation) in personal care products.
Method: A comprehensive literature review around alkyl polyglucosides (APGs) and sucrose esters (SEs) as bio-based surfactants, through the lens of the 12 green chemistry principles was conducted. An overview of the use of bio-based surfactants in personal care products was also provided.
Results: Bio-based surfactants are derived primarily from natural sources (i.e. both the head and tail molecular group). One of the more common types of bio-based surfactants are those with carbohydrate head groups, where alkyl polyglucosides (APGs) and sucrose esters (SEs) lead this sub-category. As global regulations and user mandate for sustainability and safety increase, evidence to further support these bio-based surfactants as alternatives to their petrochemical counterparts is advantageous. Use of the green chemistry framework is a suitable way to do this. While many of the discussed principles are enforced industrially, others have only yet been applied at a laboratory scale or are not apparent in literature.
Conclusion: Many of the principles of green chemistry are currently used in the synthesis of APGs and SEs. These and other bio-based surfactants should, therefore, be considered suitable and sustainable alternatives to conventional surfactants. To further encourage the use of these novel surfactants, industry must make an effort to implement and improve the use of the remaining principles at a commercial level.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Humans; Esters; Sucrose; Cosmetics; Surface-Active Agents; Alkyl polyglucosides; Bio-based surfactants; Green chemistry; Sucrose esters; Surfactants; Humans; Surface-Active Agents; Cosmetics; Esters; Sucrose; 1115 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences; Medicinal & Biomolecular Chemistry
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Q Science > QD Chemistry
R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Springer Nature
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 01 Mar 2023 12:49
Last Modified: 01 Mar 2023 12:49
DOI or ID number: 10.1007/s40199-022-00450-y
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/18974
View Item View Item