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A Stochastic Model of Personality Differences Based on PSI Theory

Hoy, M, Fritsch, S, Bröcker, T, Kuhl, J and Siekmann, I (2023) A Stochastic Model of Personality Differences Based on PSI Theory. Mathematics, 11 (5). p. 1182. ISSN 2227-7390

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Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/math11051182 (Published version)


Personality Systems Interactions (PSI) theory explains differences in personality based on the properties of four cognitive systems—object recognition (OR), intuitive behaviour (IB), intention memory (IM) and extension memory (EM). Each system is associated with characteristic modes of perception and behaviour, so personality is determined by which systems are primarily active. According to PSI theory, the activities of the cognitive systems are regulated by positive and negative affect (reward and punishment). Thus, differences in personality ultimately emerge from four parameters—the sensitivities of up- or downregulating positive and negative affect. The complex interactions of affect and cognitive systems have been represented in a mathematical model based on a system of differential equations. In this study, the environment of a person represented by the mathematical model is modelled by a time series of perturbations with positive and negative affect that are generated by a stochastic process. Comparing the average activities of the cognitive systems for different parameter sets exposed to the same time series of affect perturbations, we observe that different dominant cognitive systems emerge. This demonstrates that different sensitivities for positive and negative affect lead to different modes of cognition and, thus, to different personality types such as agreeable, conscientious, self-determined or independent. Varying the relative frequencies of negative and positive affect perturbations reveals that the average activities of all cognitive systems respond linearly. This observation enables us to predict that conscientious and independent personalities benefit from increased exposure to positive affect, whereas agreeable and self-determined personalities achieve a better balance of their cognitive systems by increased negative affect.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Q Science > QA Mathematics
Divisions: Computer Science & Mathematics
Publisher: MDPI
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 23 Mar 2023 10:51
Last Modified: 23 Mar 2023 11:00
DOI or ID number: 10.3390/math11051182
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/19159
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