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How to Open a Black Box Classifier for Tabular Data

Walters, B, Ortega-Martorell, S, Olier, I and Lisboa, PJG (2023) How to Open a Black Box Classifier for Tabular Data. Algorithms, 16 (4).

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Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/a16040181 (Published version)


A lack of transparency in machine learning models can limit their application. We show that analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods extract interpretable predictive models from them. This is possible because ANOVA decompositions represent multivariate functions as sums of functions of fewer variables. Retaining the terms in the ANOVA summation involving functions of only one or two variables provides an efficient method to open black box classifiers. The proposed method builds generalised additive models (GAMs) by application of L1 regularised logistic regression to the component terms retained from the ANOVA decomposition of the logit function. The resulting GAMs are derived using two alternative measures, Dirac and Lebesgue. Both measures produce functions that are smooth and consistent. The term partial responses in structured models (PRiSM) describes the family of models that are derived from black box classifiers by application of ANOVA decompositions. We demonstrate their interpretability and performance for the multilayer perceptron, support vector machines and gradient-boosting machines applied to synthetic data and several real-world data sets, namely Pima Diabetes, German Credit Card, and Statlog Shuttle from the UCI repository. The GAMs are shown to be compliant with the basic principles of a formal framework for interpretability.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 01 Mathematical Sciences; 08 Information and Computing Sciences; 09 Engineering
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Divisions: Computer Science & Mathematics
Publisher: MDPI AG
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 19 Apr 2023 13:23
Last Modified: 19 Apr 2023 13:23
DOI or ID number: 10.3390/a16040181
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/19255
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