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Analysing seafarer competencies in a dynamic human-machine system

Fan, S and Yang, Z (2023) Analysing seafarer competencies in a dynamic human-machine system. Ocean and Coastal Management, 240. ISSN 0964-5691

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Human factors have been deemed to affect a variety of unsafe acts and hazardous conditions, with no exceptions in the maritime sector. With increasing applications of automation techniques in shipping, seafarers’ roles are changing, and their competencies require to be assessed and assured for safety at sea accordingly. The studies on seafarer competencies have therefore been tightly bound with a human-machine system which consists of the interaction of seafarers and ship operational systems and sub-systems. To evaluate the seafarer competencies that fit automation systems in shipping, this paper aims to develop a new dynamic human-machine model in shipping that can be used to analyse human factors in a closed-loop system. Based on Crew Resource Management and the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, it reflects the input, process, and output phases of the human system and its interactions with machine sub-systems. A new tool to analyse seafarer competencies is proposed to rationalise human factor evaluation in the maritime closed-loop system and reflect the dynamic human-machine cooperation process. Two case studies have been conducted to illustrate the feasibility of the new model and in the meantime to investigate seafarer competencies in the dynamic human-machine system. It produces a new human factor analysis tool to investigate maritime accidents. The results and policy implications help explore the adjustment of maritime training to support ship automation and provide guidance on risk management for traditional and autonomous ships.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 04 Earth Sciences; 05 Environmental Sciences; 16 Studies in Human Society; Fisheries
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor > HD61 Risk Management
H Social Sciences > HE Transportation and Communications
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TC Hydraulic engineering. Ocean engineering
Divisions: Engineering
Publisher: Elsevier
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 04 Jul 2023 10:46
Last Modified: 04 Jul 2023 11:00
DOI or Identification number: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2023.106662
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/20211

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