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Single and 7-day handgrip and squat exercise prevents endothelial ischaemia-reperfusion injury in individuals with cardiovascular disease risk factors

Somani, YB, Boidin, M, Peggen, MAG, Wanders, I, Proctor, D, Low, DA, Jones, H, Lip, GYH and Thijssen, DHJ (2023) Single and 7-day handgrip and squat exercise prevents endothelial ischaemia-reperfusion injury in individuals with cardiovascular disease risk factors. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. ISSN 0363-6119

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Background: Whole-body exercise provides protection against endothelial ischaemia-19 reperfusion (IR) injury. In this crossover study, we examined the effects of 1) single bout of 20 local exercise (handgrip, squats) on endothelial responses to IR, and 2) if 7 days of daily local 21 exercise bolsters these effects in individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. 22 Methods: Fifteen participants (9 women, 58±5 years, ≥2 CVD risk factors) attended the 23 laboratory for 6 visits. Subsequent to familiarization (visit 1), on visit 2 (control) brachial 24 artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured before and after IR (15-minutes upper-25 arm ischemia, 15-minutes reperfusion). One week later, participants were randomized to 4x5-26 min unilateral handgrip (50% maximal voluntary contraction, 25 rpm) or squat exercises (15 27 rpm), followed by IR plus FMD measurements. Subsequently, home-based exercise was 28 performed (six days), followed by another visit to the laboratory for the IR protocol plus 29 FMD measurements (18-24 h after the last exercise bout). Following a two-week washout 30 period, procedures were repeated with the alternative exercise mode. 31 Results: For a single exercise bout, we found a significant IR injury*exercise mode 32 interaction (P<0.01), but no main effect of injury (P=0.08) or condition (P=0.61). A lower 33 post-IR FMD was evident after control (pre-IR: 4.3±2.1% to post-IR: 2.9±1.9%, P<0.01), but 34 not after handgrip (pre-IR: 3.8±1.6% to post-IR: 3.4±1.5%, P=0.31) or squats (pre-IR: 35 3.9±1.8% to post-IR: 4.0±1.9%, P=0.74). After 7 days of daily exercise, we found no change 36 in FMD post-IR following handgrip (pre-IR: 4.3±1.9% to post-IR: 4.7±3.2%) or squats (pre-37 IR: 3.7±2.1% to post-IR: 4.7±3.0%, P>0.05). 38 Conclusions: Single bouts of dynamic, local exercise (handgrip, squats) provides remote 39 protection against endothelial IR-induced injury in individuals with CVD risk factors, with 40 one-week daily, home-based exercise preserving these effects for up to 24h following the last 41 exercise bout.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Not to be used for commercial purposes
Uncontrolled Keywords: 06 Biological Sciences; 11 Medical and Health Sciences; Physiology
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Nursing & Allied Health
Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: American Physiological Society
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 23 Oct 2023 15:00
Last Modified: 23 Jan 2024 13:45
DOI or ID number: 10.1152/ajpregu.00168.2023
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/21743
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