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Age and Sex relationship with Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD) in Healthy Children and Adolescents.

Hopkins, ND, Dengel, DR, Stratton, G, Kelly, AS, Steinberger, J, Zavala, H, Marlatt, K, Perry, D, Naylor, LH and Green, DJ (2015) Age and Sex relationship with Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD) in Healthy Children and Adolescents. Journal of Applied Physiology, 119 (8). pp. 922-936. ISSN 0021-8987

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BACKGROUND: Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a non-invasive technique used to measure conduit artery vascular function. Limited information is available on normative FMD values in healthy children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To assess relationships between age and sex on with FMD across childhood and adolescence. METHODS: Nine hundred and seventy-eight asymptomatic children (12+3yrs, range 6 - 18yrs, 530 male) underwent ultrasonic brachial artery assessment prior to, and following five minutes of forearm ischemia. Sex differences in FMD and baseline artery diameter were assessed using mixed linear models. RESULTS: Baseline artery diameter was smaller in females than males (2.96mm (95% CI, 2.92, 3.00) vs 3.24 (3.19, 3.28), P<0.001), and increased with age across the cohort (P<0.001). Diameter increased between 6 and 17 years old in males (2.81mm (2.63, 3.00) to 3.91mm (3.68, 4.14)), but plateaued at age 12 in females. Males had a lower FMD (7.62 (7.33, 7.91) vs 8.31 (7.95, 8.66), P=0.024), specifically at ages 17 and 18. There was a significant effect of age on FMD (P=0.023), with a reduction in FMD apparent post-puberty in males. CONCLUSIONS: The brachial artery increases structurally with age in both sexes, however there are sex differences in the timing and rate of growth, in line with typical sex-specific adolescent growth patterns. Males have a lower FMD than females, and FMD appears to decline with age, however these findings are driven by reductions in FMD as males near maturity. The use of age- and sex-specific FMD data may therefore not be pertinent in childhood and adolescence.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 06 Biological Sciences, 11 Medical And Health Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: American Psychological Society
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Date Deposited: 16 Oct 2015 14:31
Last Modified: 03 Sep 2021 23:23
DOI or ID number: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01113.2014
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/2190
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