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Collapsars as Sites of r-process Nucleosynthesis: Systematic Photometric Near-infrared Follow-up of Type Ic-BL Supernovae

Anand, S, Barnes, J, Yang, S, Kasliwal, MM, Coughlin, MW, Sollerman, J, De, K, Fremling, C, Corsi, A, Ho, AYQ, Balasubramanian, A, Omand, C, Srinivasaragavan, GP, Cenko, SB, Ahumada, T, Andreoni, I, Dahiwale, A, Das, KK, Jencson, J, Karambelkar, V , Kumar, H, Metzger, BD, Perley, D, Sarin, N, Schweyer, T, Schulze, S, Sharma, Y, Sit, T, Stein, R, Tartaglia, L, Tinyanont, S, Tzanidakis, A, van Roestel, J, Yao, Y, Bloom, JS, Cook, DO, Dekany, R, Graham, MJ, Groom, SL, Kaplan, DL, Masci, FJ, Medford, MS, Riddle, R and Zhang, C (2024) Collapsars as Sites of r-process Nucleosynthesis: Systematic Photometric Near-infrared Follow-up of Type Ic-BL Supernovae. The Astrophysical Journal, 962 (1). p. 68. ISSN 1538-4357

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One of the open questions following the discovery of GW170817 is whether neutron star (NS) mergers are the only astrophysical sites capable of producing r-process elements. Simulations have shown that 0.01–0.1 M⊙ of r-process material could be generated in the outflows originating from the accretion disk surrounding the rapidly rotating black hole that forms as a remnant to both NS mergers and collapsing massive stars associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (collapsars). The hallmark signature of r-process nucleosynthesis in the binary NS merger GW170817 was its long-lasting near-infrared (NIR) emission, thus motivating a systematic photometric study of the light curves of broad-lined stripped-envelope (Ic-BL) supernovae (SNe) associated with collapsars. We present the first systematic study of 25 SNe Ic-BL—including 18 observed with the Zwicky Transient Facility and 7 from the literature—in the optical/NIR bands to determine what quantity of r-process material, if any, is synthesized in these explosions. Using semi-analytic models designed to account for r-process production in SNe Ic-BL, we perform light curve fitting to derive constraints on the r-process mass for these SNe. We also perform independent light curve fits to models without the r-process. We find that the r-process-free models are a better fit to the light curves of the objects in our sample. Thus, we find no compelling evidence of r-process enrichment in any of our objects. Further high-cadence infrared photometric studies and nebular spectroscopic analysis would be sensitive to smaller quantities of r-process ejecta mass or indicate whether all collapsars are completely devoid of r-process nucleosynthesis.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences; 0202 Atomic, Molecular, Nuclear, Particle and Plasma Physics; 0306 Physical Chemistry (incl. Structural); Astronomy & Astrophysics
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions: Astrophysics Research Institute
Publisher: American Astronomical Society
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 16 Feb 2024 15:15
Last Modified: 16 Feb 2024 15:15
DOI or ID number: 10.3847/1538-4357/ad11df
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/22640
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