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Craniofacial identification standards: a review of reliability, reproducibility, and implementation

Wilkinson, C, Liu, CYJ, Shrimpton, S and Greenway, E (2024) Craniofacial identification standards: a review of reliability, reproducibility, and implementation. Forensic Science International. ISSN 0379-0738

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There are numerous anatomical and anthropometrical standards that can be utilised for craniofacial analysis and identification. These standards originate from a wide variety of sources, such as orthodontic, maxillofacial, surgical, anatomical, anthropological and forensic literature, and numerous media have been employed to collect data from living and deceased subjects. With the development of clinical imaging and the enhanced technology associated with this field, multiple methods of data collection have become accessible, including Computed Tomography, Cone-Beam Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Radiographs, Three-dimensional Scanning, Photogrammetry and Ultrasound, alongside the more traditional in vivo methods, such as palpation and direct measurement, and cadaveric human dissection. Practitioners often struggle to identify the most appropriate standards and research results are frequently inconsistent adding to the confusion. This paper aims to clarify how practitioners can choose optimal standards, which standards are the most reliable and when to apply these standards for craniofacial identification. This paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of each mode of data collection and collates published research to review standards across different populations for each facial feature. This paper does not aim to be a practical instruction paper; since this field encompasses a wide range of 2D and 3D approaches (e.g., clay sculpture, sketch, automated, computer-modelling), the implementation of these standards is left to the individual practitioner.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Legal & Forensic Medicine
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Divisions: Art & Design
Publisher: Elsevier
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 25 Mar 2024 10:38
Last Modified: 25 Mar 2024 10:38
DOI or ID number: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2024.111993
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/22905
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