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Analytical and behavioral characterization of 1‐dodecanoyl‐LSD (1DD‐LSD)

Kavanagh, PV, Westphal, F, Pulver, B, Elliott, SP, Stratford, A, Halberstadt, AL and Brandt, SD (2024) Analytical and behavioral characterization of 1‐dodecanoyl‐LSD (1DD‐LSD). Drug Testing and Analysis. ISSN 1942-7611

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1-Acetyl-N,N-diethyllysergamide (1A-LSD, ALD-52) was first synthesized in the 1950s and found to produce psychedelic effects similar to those of LSD. Evidence suggests that ALD-52 serves as a prodrug in vivo and hydrolysis to LSD is likely responsible for its activity. Extension of the N1-alkylcarbonyl chain gives rise to novel lysergamides, which spurred further investigations into their structure–activity relationships. At the same time, ALD-52 and numerous homologues have emerged as recreational drugs (“research chemicals”) that are available from online vendors. In the present study, 1-dodecanoyl-LSD (1DD-LSD), a novel N1-acylated LSD derivative, was subjected to analytical characterization and was also tested in the mouse head-twitch response (HTR) assay to assess whether it produces LSD-like effects in vivo. When tested in C57BL/6J mice, 1DD-LSD induced the HTR with a median effective dose (ED50) of 2.17 mg/kg, which was equivalent to 3.60 μmol/kg. Under similar experimental conditions, LSD has 27-fold higher potency than 1DD-LSD in the HTR assay. Previous work has shown that other homologues such as ALD-52 and 1-propanoyl-LSD also have considerably higher potency than 1DD-LSD in mice, which suggests that hydrolysis of the 1-dodecanoyl moiety may be comparatively less efficient in vivo. Further investigations are warranted to determine whether the increased lipophilicity of 1DD-LSD causes it to be sequestered in fat, thereby reducing its exposure to enzymatic hydrolysis in plasma and tissues. Further clinical studies are also required to assess its activity in humans and to test the prediction that it could potentially serve as a long-acting prodrug for LSD.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0301 Analytical Chemistry; 0601 Biochemistry and Cell Biology; 1115 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences; Analytical Chemistry
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Wiley
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2024 08:46
Last Modified: 04 Apr 2024 10:45
DOI or ID number: 10.1002/dta.3691
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/22955
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