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Effect of BDKRB2 Gene -9/+9 polymorphism on training improvements in competitive swimmers

Zmijewski, P, Grenda, A, Leońska-Duniec, A, Ahmetov, II, Orysiak, J and Cięszczyk, P (2016) Effect of BDKRB2 Gene -9/+9 polymorphism on training improvements in competitive swimmers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30 (3). pp. 665-671. ISSN 1064-8011

Effect of BDKRB2 gene 99 polymorphism on training improvements in competitive swimmers.pdf - Accepted Version

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The aim of the study was to investigate the possible association between the BDKRB2 gene and training-induced improvements in swimming performance in well-trained swimmers. One hundred Polish swimmers (52 men and 48 women, aged 18.1 ± 1.9 years), who competed in national and international competitions at middle- (200 m) and long-distance events (≥400 m), were included in the study. Athletes' genotype and allele distributions were analyzed in comparison to 230 unrelated sedentary subjects, who served as controls, with the χ 2 test. All samples were genotyped for the BDKRB2 -9/+9 polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction. The effects of genotype on swimming performance improvements were analyzed with two-way (3 × 2; genotype × time) analysis of variance with metric age as a covariate. The training period of 1.9 ± 0.4 years had a significant (p < 0.01) effect on swimming performance, both in female and male athletes. Both in female and male athletes, the BDKRB2 gene -9/+9 polymorphism had no significant effect on swimming performance. An interaction effect of BDKRB2 gene -9/+9 polymorphism × time was found for swimming performance only in male athletes. Post hoc analyses showed that swimmers with the +9/+9 BDKRB2 genotype had a greater improvement in swimming performance than swimmers with the -9/+9 polymorphism (p ≤ 0.05). No interaction effects for gender × BDKRB2 gene -9/+9 polymorphism were found for either swimming performance or improvement in swimming performance. These results suggest that the response to long-term exercise training could be modulated by the BDKRB2 gene -9/+9 polymorphism in male athletes. In well-trained swimmers, BDKRB2 gene variation was not found to be an independent determinant of swimming performance.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. The published version of record Zmijewski, Piotr; Grenda, Agata; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ahmetov, Ildus; Orysiak, Joanna; Cięszczyk, Pawel. Effect of BDKRB2 Gene −9/+9 Polymorphism on Training Improvements in Competitive Swimmers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 30(3):p 665-671, March 2016. | DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001145 is available online at: https://journals.lww.com/nscajscr/fulltext/2016/03000/effect_of_bdkrb2_gene__9__9_polymorphism_on.9.aspx
Uncontrolled Keywords: Science & Technology; Life Sciences & Biomedicine; Sport Sciences; exercise; physiology; athletic performance; genotype; humans; physical endurance; genetics; physical fitness; male; female; Poland; BRADYKININ RECEPTOR GENE; PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE; SWIMMING PERFORMANCE; SKELETAL-MUSCLE; ASSOCIATION; GENOTYPE; DISEASES; HUMANS; POLISH; ACTN3; Humans; Receptor, Bradykinin B2; Case-Control Studies; Adaptation, Physiological; Swimming; Genotype; Polymorphism, Genetic; Alleles; Adolescent; Female; Male; Athletic Performance; Young Adult; Physical Conditioning, Human; Adaptation, Physiological; Adolescent; Alleles; Athletic Performance; Case-Control Studies; Female; Genotype; Humans; Male; Physical Conditioning, Human; Polymorphism, Genetic; Receptor, Bradykinin B2; Swimming; Young Adult; 1106 Human Movement and Sports Sciences; 1116 Medical Physiology; Sport Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 29 Apr 2024 13:31
Last Modified: 29 Apr 2024 13:45
DOI or ID number: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001145
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/23088
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