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Effects of endurance exercise training on left ventricular structure in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Morrison, BN, George, K, Kreiter, E, Dixon, D, Rebello, L, Massarotto, RJ and Cote, AT (2023) Effects of endurance exercise training on left ventricular structure in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 30 (9). pp. 772-793. ISSN 2047-4873

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Aims To determine the impact of endurance training (ET) interventions on left ventricular (LV) chamber size, wall thickness, and mass in healthy adults. Methods and results Electronic databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane library, and EBM Reviews were searched up to 4 January 2022. Criteria for inclusion were healthy females and/or males (>18 years), ET intervention for ≥2 weeks, and studies reporting pre- and post-training LV structural parameters. A random-effects meta-analysis with heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity analysis was used to determine the effects of ET on LV mass (LVM) and diastolic measures of interventricular septum thickness (IVSd), posterior wall thickness (PWTd), and LV diameter (LVDd). Meta-regression was performed on mediating factors (age, sex, training protocols) to assess their effects on LV structure. Eighty-two studies met inclusion criteria (n = 1908; 19–82 years, 33% female). There was a significant increase in LVM, PWTd, IVSd, and LVDd following ET [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.444, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.361, 0.527; P < 0.001; SMD = 0.234, 95% CI: 0.159, 0.309; P < 0.001; SMD = 0.237, 95% CI: 0.159, 0.316; P < 0.001; SMD = 0.249, 95% CI:0.173, 0.324; P < 0.001, respectively]. Trained status, training type, and age were the only mediating factors for change in LVM, where previously trained, mixed-type training, young (18–35 years), and middle-aged (36–55 years) individuals had the greatest change compared with untrained, interval-type training, and older individuals (>55 years). A significant increase in wall thickness was observed in males, with a similar augmentation of LVDd in males and females. Trained individuals elicited an increase in all LV structures and ET involving mixed-type training and rowing and swimming modalities conferred the greatest increase in PWTd and LVDd. Conclusion Left ventricular structure is significantly increased following ET. Males, young and trained individuals, and ET interventions involving mixed training regimes elicit the greatest changes in LV structure.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Heart Ventricles; Humans; Exercise Therapy; Ventricular Function, Left; Physical Endurance; Swimming; Adolescent; Adult; Middle Aged; Female; Male; Young Adult; Endurance Training; Athletes; Endurance exercise training; Left ventricle; Sex differences; Male; Middle Aged; Humans; Female; Adolescent; Young Adult; Adult; Endurance Training; Heart Ventricles; Exercise Therapy; Swimming; Physical Endurance; Ventricular Function, Left
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 28 May 2024 14:26
Last Modified: 28 May 2024 14:26
DOI or ID number: 10.1093/eurjpc/zwad023
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/23373
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