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Are there interindividual differences in the reactive hypoglycaemia response to breakfast? A replicate crossover trial

Gonzalez, JT, Lolli, L, Veasey, RC, Rumbold, PLS, Betts, JA, Atkinson, G and Stevenson, EJ Are there interindividual differences in the reactive hypoglycaemia response to breakfast? A replicate crossover trial. European Journal of Nutrition. ISSN 1436-6207 (Accepted)

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Background: Following consumption of a meal, circulating glucose concentrations can rise and then fall briefly below the basal/fasting concentrations. This phenomenon is known as reactive hypoglycaemia but to date no study explored potential inter individual differences in response to meal consumption. Objective: We conducted a secondary analysis of existing data to examine inter-individual variability of reactive hypoglycaemia in response to breakfast consumption. Methods: Using a replicate crossover design, 12 healthy, physically active men (age: 18-30 y, body mass index: 22.1 to 28.0 kg×m-2) completed two identical control (continued overnight fasting) and two breakfast (444 kcal; 60% carbohydrate, 17% protein, 23% fat) conditions in randomised sequences. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations, serum insulin and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, whole-body energy expenditure, carbohydrate and fat oxidation rates, and appetite ratings were determined before and 2 hours after the interventions. Inter-individual differences were explored using Pearson’s product moment correlations between the first and second replicates of the fasting-adjusted breakfast response. Within-participant covariate-adjusted linear mixed models and a random-effects meta-analytical approach were used to quantify participant-by condition interactions. Results: Breakfast consumption lowered 2-h blood glucose 0.44 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.76 to 0.12 mmol/L) and serum NEFA concentrations, whilst increasing blood lactate and serum insulin concentrations (all p < 0.01). Large, positive correlations were observed between the first and second replicates of the fasting adjusted insulin, lactate, hunger, and satisfaction responses to breakfast consumption (all r > 0.5, 90%CI ranged from 0.03 to 0.91). The participant-by-condition interaction response variability (SD) for serum insulin concentration was 11 pmol/L (95%CI: 5 to 16 pmol/L), which was consistent with the t-statistic from the random-effects meta-analysis (11.7 pmol/L, 95%CI 7.0 to 22.2 pmol/L) whereas effects were unclear for other outcome variables (e.g., t-statistic value for glucose: 0 mmol/L, 95%CI 0.0 to 0.5 mmol/L). Conclusions: Despite observing reactive hypoglycaemia at the group level, we were unable to detect any meaningful inter-individual variability of the reactive hypoglycaemia response to breakfast. There was, however, evidence that 2-h insulin responses to breakfast display meaningful inter-individual variability, which may be explained by relative carbohydrate dose ingested and variation in insulin sensitivity of participants.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1111 Nutrition and Dietetics; Nutrition & Dietetics
Subjects: T Technology > TX Home economics > TX341 Nutrition. Foods and food supply
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: Springer
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 03 Jul 2024 14:39
Last Modified: 03 Jul 2024 14:45
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/23689
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