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Image encryption framework based on multi-chaotic maps and equal pixel values quantization

Kolivand, H, Hamood, SF, Asadianfam, S, Mohd Rahim, MS and Hurst, W (2024) Image encryption framework based on multi-chaotic maps and equal pixel values quantization. Multimedia Tools and Applications. ISSN 1380-7501

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Abstract The importance of image encryption has considerably increased, especially after the dramatic evolution of the internet and network communications, due to the simplicity of capturing and transferring digital images. Although there are several encryption approaches, chaos-based image encryption is considered the most appropriate approach for image applications because of its sensitivity to initial conditions and control parameters. Confusion and diffusion methods have been used in conventional image encryption methods, but the ideal encrypted image has not yet been achieved. This research aims to generate an encrypted image free of statistical information to make cryptanalysis infeasible. Additionally, the motivation behind this work lies in addressing the shortcomings of conventional image encryption methods, which have not yet achieved the ideal encrypted image. The proposed framework aims to overcome these challenges by introducing a new method, Equal Pixel Values Quantization (EPVQ), along with enhancing the confusion and diffusion processes using chaotic maps and additive white Gaussian noise. Key security, statistical properties of encrypted images, and withstanding differential attacks are the most important issues in the field of image encryption. Therefore, a new method, Equal Pixel Values Quantization (EPVQ), was introduced in this study in addition to the proposed confusion and diffusion methods to achieve an ideal image encryption framework. Generally, the confusion method uses Sensitive Logistic Map (SLM), Henon Map, and additive white Gaussian noise to generate random numbers for use in the pixel permutation method. However, the diffusion method uses the Extended Bernoulli Map (EBM), Tinkerbell, Burgers, and Ricker maps to generate the random matrix. Internal Interaction between Image Pixels (IIIP) was used to implement the XOR (Exclusive OR) operator between the random matrix and scrambled image. Basically, the EPVQ method was used to idealize the histogram and information entropy of the ciphered image. The correlation between adjacent pixels was minimized to have a very small value (×10−3). Besides, the key space was extended to be very large (2450) considering the key sensitivity to hinder brute force attacks. Finally, a histogram was idealized to be perfectly equal in all occurrences, and the resulting information entropy was equal to the ideal value (8), which means that the resulting encrypted image is free of statistical properties in terms of the histogram and information entropy. Based on the findings, the high randomness of the generated random sequences of the proposed confusion and diffusion methods is capable of producing a robust image encryption framework against all types of cryptanalysis attacks.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0801 Artificial Intelligence and Image Processing; 0803 Computer Software; 0805 Distributed Computing; 0806 Information Systems; Artificial Intelligence & Image Processing; Software Engineering
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Divisions: Computer Science & Mathematics
Publisher: Springer
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 08 Jul 2024 10:07
Last Modified: 08 Jul 2024 10:15
DOI or ID number: 10.1007/s11042-024-19771-y
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/23717
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