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Genetic variation and exercise-induced muscle damage: implications for athletic performance, injury and ageing.

Baumert, P, Lake, MJ, Stewart, CE, Drust, B and Erskine, RM (2016) Genetic variation and exercise-induced muscle damage: implications for athletic performance, injury and ageing. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY. ISSN 1439-6319

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Prolonged unaccustomed exercise involving muscle lengthening (eccentric) actions can result in ultrastructural muscle disruption, impaired excitation-contraction coupling, inflammation and muscle protein degradation. This process is associated with delayed onset muscle soreness and is referred to as exercise-induced muscle damage. Although a certain amount of muscle damage may be necessary for adaptation to occur, excessive damage or inadequate recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage can increase injury risk, particularly in older individuals, who experience more damage and require longer to recover from muscle damaging exercise than younger adults. Furthermore, it is apparent that inter-individual variation exists in the response to exercise-induced muscle damage, and there is evidence that genetic variability may play a key role. Although this area of research is in its infancy, certain gene variations, or polymorphisms have been associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (i.e. individuals with certain genotypes experience greater muscle damage, and require longer recovery, following strenuous exercise). These polymorphisms include ACTN3 (R577X, rs1815739), TNF (-308 G>A, rs1800629), IL6 (-174 G>C, rs1800795), and IGF2 (ApaI, 17200 G>A, rs680). Knowing how someone is likely to respond to a particular type of exercise could help coaches/practitioners individualise the exercise training of their athletes/patients, thus maximising recovery and adaptation, while reducing overload-associated injury risk. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the literature concerning gene polymorphisms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage, both in young and older individuals, and to highlight the potential mechanisms underpinning these associations, thus providing a better understanding of exercise-induced muscle damage.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1106 Human Movement And Sports Science
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: SPRINGER
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 22 Jun 2016 10:51
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 12:46
DOI or Identification number: 10.1007/s00421-016-3411-1
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/3804

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