Facial reconstruction

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Morphological and morphometric changes in the faces of female-to-male transsexual (FTM) people

Mackenzie, S and Wilkinson, CM (2017) Morphological and morphometric changes in the faces of female-to-male transsexual (FTM) people. International Journal of Transgenderism, 18 (2). pp. 172-181. ISSN 1434-4599

FTM faces paper-accepted version-feb 14.2017.pdf - Accepted Version

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Facial changes associated with the administration of exogenous testosterone and bilateral oophorectomy in female-to-male (FtM) transsexual people (trans men; trans males) has not been previously documented. This study aimed to describe the qualitative and quantitative transformation from a female to a male facial appearance and to identify predictable patterns of change. Twenty-five trans men were studied using morphological and morphometrical analysis of pre-transition 2-D images and post-transition 3-D scan models. The mean subject age was 39 years and all subjects had been taking testosterone for at least 3 years, with a mean duration of therapy of 8.6 years. While 32% of subjects were classified by a majority of observers as male appearing in pre-transition photographs, this rose to 95.5% in post-transition images. Eighty-six percent of subjects demonstrated an increase in male classification after transition. Morphometrically, 44% of subjects became wider in the face overall and 100% of subjects measured demonstrated a narrower nose after transition. Testosterone virilizes adult female faces and will cause widening of the face. The most consistent facial change was the production of a narrower nasal width at the alae, which may be a result of fat re-deposition not related to ageing effects or body mass index (BMI).

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in International Journal of Transgenderism on 10th February 2017, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/15532739.2017.1279581
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1699 Other Studies In Human Society, 1701 Psychology
Subjects: N Fine Arts > N Visual arts (General) For photography, see TR
Q Science > QP Physiology
Divisions: Art & Design
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Date Deposited: 25 Apr 2017 10:34
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 03:59
DOI or ID number: 10.1080/15532739.2017.1279581
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/6283
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