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4-Fluoroamphetamine (4-FA). Critical Review Report.

Brandt, SD (2015) 4-Fluoroamphetamine (4-FA). Critical Review Report. Technical Report. World Health Organization (WHO).

WHO_2015_CR_5.4_4-FA_CRev_2015.pdf - Published Version

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1-(4-Fluorophenyl)propan-2-amine (4-fluoroamphetamine, 4-FA) is a psychomotor stimulant that was first synthesized in the early 1940s. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) received the first formal notification of the detection of 4-FA in Europe in December 2008 although its presence has been noted since at least 2007. In Europe, it has been found in tablets sold as ‘ecstasy’/MDMA, paste or powder sold as amphetamine. In addition, it can be obtained from Internet retailers as a ‘research chemical’ and it has also been detected as an adulterant present in other illicit controlled substances. 4-FA appears to be most commonly administered orally or by nasal insufflation (snorting). The EMCDDA has been notified of seizures from various locations in Europe since 2008. Data indicate that 4-FA may be able to inhibit monoamine oxidase and that it functions as a substrate-type releasing agent of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. It has been shown to display amphetamine-like features in vivo and in vitro and further research is warranted to investigate the extent to which 4-FA displays a potential for abuse and dependence in both animals in humans that is comparable to substances such as amphetamine, cocaine or related psychostimulants. Case report data in the scientific literature that unambiguously confirm a causal relationship between adverse effects of 4-FA and its presence in biofluids are limited to only a relatively small number of cases. In cases where this information is available, reported clinical features were associated with those of a sympathomimetic toxidrome. The EMCDDA has received reports from positive identifications in biofluids samples from 2009 onward. It has been reported that 4-FA might have established itself as a drug of choice in a surveyed convenience sample of 249 life-time users of 4-FA in one European country. Surveys that systematically assess the prevalence of use 4-FA within the general population are not available.

Item Type: Monograph (Technical Report)
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: World Health Organization (WHO)
Date Deposited: 23 Oct 2017 10:46
Last Modified: 24 Jan 2022 11:12
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/7405
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