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The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters - IX. The Atlas of multiple stellar populations

Milone, AP, Piotto, G, Renzini, A, Marino, AF, Bedin, LR, Vesperini, E, D'Antona, F, Nardiello, D, Anderson, J, King, IR, Yong, D, Bellini, A, Aparicio, A, Barbuy, B, Brown, TM, Cassisi, S, Ortolani, S, Salaris, M, Sarajedini, A and van der Marel, RP (2016) The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters - IX. The Atlas of multiple stellar populations. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 464 (3). pp. 3636-3656. ISSN 0035-8711

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We use high-precision photometry of red-giant-branch (RGB) stars in 57 Galactic globular clusters (GCs), mostly from the 'Hubble Space Telescope (HST ) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs', to identify and characterize their multiple stellar populations. For each cluster the pseudo-two-colour diagram (or 'chromosome map') is presented, built with a suitable combination of stellar magnitudes in the F275W, F336W, F438W, and F814W filters that maximizes the separation between multiple populations. In the chromosome map of most GCs (type-I clusters), stars separate in two distinct groups that we identify with the first (1G) and the second generation (2G). This identification is further supported by noticing that 1G stars have primordial (oxygen-rich, sodium-poor) chemical composition, whereas 2G stars are enhanced in sodium and depleted in oxygen. This 1G-2G separation is not possible for a few GCs where the two sequences have apparently merged into an extended, continuous sequence. In some GCs (type-II clusters) the 1G and/or the 2G sequences appear to be split, hence displaying more complex chromosome maps. These clusters exhibit multiple subgiant branches (SGBs) also in purely optical colour-magnitude diagrams, with the fainter SGB joining into a red RGB which is populated by stars with enhanced heavy-element abundance. We measure the RGB width by using appropriate colours and pseudo-colours. When the metallicity dependence is removed, the RGB width correlates with the cluster mass. The fraction of 1G stars ranges from ~8 per cent to ~67 per cent and anticorrelates with the cluster mass, indicating that incidence and complexity of the multiple population phenomenon both increase with cluster mass.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ©: 2016 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0201 Astronomical And Space Sciences
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions: Astrophysics Research Institute
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Date Deposited: 05 Jan 2018 10:24
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 10:52
DOI or ID number: 10.1093/mnras/stw2531
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/7779
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