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Design and implementation of a non-invasive real-time microwave sensor for assessing water hardness in heat exchangers

Teng, KH, Shaw, A, Ateeq, M, Al-Shamma a, A, Wylie, S, Kazi, SN, Chew, BT and Kot, P (2017) Design and implementation of a non-invasive real-time microwave sensor for assessing water hardness in heat exchangers. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. ISSN 0920-5071

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A non-invasive-monitoring of concentration and dielectric properties of calcium hardness in heat exchanger cooling water was conducted with a 2.5 GHz microwave cavity resonator designed and fabricated locally for the experiment. The principle of electric dipole moment theories were used to analyse the sample solution that occurs as a function of calcium ion content. Artificial difference of water hardness was prepared by mixing CaCl 2 in deionised water . The sample was centrally positioned in the electric field of the TM 010 mode of a resonant cylindrical cavity. COMSOL simulation package was used to compare and validate the experimental cavity resonator frequency. Transmission signal (S 21 ) measurements via vector network analyser at different concentrations were observed a linear relationship in amplitude with different frequency changes. In addition, calcium absorption provides a first-order change in material polarisation (i.e. real permittivity), and second-order transitions associated dielectric losses (i.e. imaginary permittivity). These research findings introduce a novel technique of real-time monitoring of water hardness concentration by using non-invasive microwave sensor. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications on 29/11/17, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/09205071.2017.1406408
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0906 Electrical And Electronic Engineering
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering
Divisions: Civil Engineering & Built Environment
Civil Engineering (merged with Built Env 10 Aug 20)
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Date Deposited: 05 Mar 2018 09:39
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 10:43
DOI or ID number: 10.1080/09205071.2017.1406408
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/8174
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