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Geochronology and physical context of Oldowan site formation at Kanjera South, Kenya.

Ditchfield, P, Whitfield, E, Vincent, T, Plummer, T, Braun, D, Deino, A, Hertel, F, Oliver, JS, Louys, J and Bishop, LC (2018) Geochronology and physical context of Oldowan site formation at Kanjera South, Kenya. Geological Magazine. ISSN 0016-7568

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Oldowan sites in primary geologic context are rare in the archaeological record. Here we describe the depositional environment of Oldowan occurrences at Kanjera South, Kenya, based on field descriptions and granulometric analysis. Excavations there have recovered a large Oldowan artefact sample as well as the oldest substantial sample of archaeological fauna. The deposits at Kanjera South consist of 30 m of fluvial, colluvial, and lacustrine sediments. Magneto- and bio-stratigraphy indicate the Kanjera South Member of the Kanjera Formation was deposited between 2.3 and 1.92 million years ago (Ma), with 2.0 Ma being a likely age for the archaeological occurrences. Oldowan artefacts and associated fauna were deposited in the colluvial and alluvial silts and sands of Beds KS-1 to KS-3, in the margins of a lake basin. Field descriptions and granulometric analysis of the sediment fine fraction indicates sediments from within the main archaeological horizon were emplaced as a combination of tractional and hyperconcentrated flows with limited evidence of debris flow deposition. This style of deposition is unlikely to significantly erode or disturb the underlying surface and therefore promotes preservation of surface archaeological accumulations. Hominins were repeatedly attracted to the site locale, and rapid sedimentation, minimal bone weathering, and an absence of bone or artefact rounding further indicate that fossils and artefacts were quickly buried.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0403 Geology
Subjects: Q Science > QE Geology
Divisions: Natural Sciences & Psychology (closed 31 Aug 19)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)
Date Deposited: 20 Aug 2018 08:54
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 10:15
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/9072
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