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Adiposity, BMI, FMI and the ageing bone: their singular and combined roles linked to physical activity and diet

Tomlinson, D, Erskine, RM, Morse, C and Onambélé, G Adiposity, BMI, FMI and the ageing bone: their singular and combined roles linked to physical activity and diet. Nutrients. ISSN 2072-6643 (Accepted)

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This study took a multi-analytical approach including group differences, correlations and unit-weighed directional z-scores comparisons to identify key mediators of bone health. 190 participants (18-80yrs) were categorized by body fat%, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass index (FMI) to examine the effect of differing obesity criteria on bone characteristics. A subset of 50 healthy-eating middle to older aged adults (44-80yrs) were randomly selected to examine any added impact of lifestyle and inflammatory profiles. Diet was assessed using a 3-day food diary, bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, physical activity using the Baecke questionnaire, and endocrine profiling using multiplex luminometry. Obesity classed via BMI positively affected 20/22, whereas FMI was associated with 14/22 and adiposity only modulated 9/22 BMC and BMD-related outcome measures. Whilst bivariate correlations only linked Vitamin A and relative protein intake with BMD, the Z-score composite summary presented a significantly different overall dietary quality between healthy and osteopenic individuals. In addition, bivariate correlations from the subset revealed daily energy intake, sport-based physical activity and BMI positive mediator of 7/10 BMD sites with age and body fat% shown to be negative mediators of bone characteristics. In conclusion whilst BMI is a good indicator of bone characteristics, high body fat% should be the focus of osteoporosis risk with ageing. Interestingly, high BMI in conjunction with moderate to vigorous activity supplemented with an optimal diet (quality and quantity) are identified of positive modulators of bone heath.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1111 Nutrition and Dietetics
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Publisher: MDPI AG
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 17 Jan 2019 09:32
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 02:03
Editors: Wessner, B
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/9963

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